Verbal Ability: English grammar, sentence completion, verbal analogies, word groups, instructions, critical reasoning and verbal deduction.

Numerical Ability: Numerical computation, numerical estimation, numerical reasoning and data interpretation.

## Thursday, September 17, 2009

### Gate-2010 (New rule)

IN Gate 2010 some new things is added . some of them are as follows:-

1. Biotechnology (BT) has been introduced as an independent paper from GATE 2010.

2.Common Component of General Aptitude (GA) introduced in GATE 2010: Each GATE paper shall have a common General Aptitude (GA) component carrying 15 marks from GATE 2010.

3. Q.56 to Q.60 : From General Aptitude (GA) will carry one mark each (sub-total 5 marks).1/3 marks will be deducted for each wrong answer.Q.61 to Q.65 : From GA will carry two marks each (sub-total 10 marks).2/3 mark will be deducted for each wrong answer.

4. All the papers bearing the codes AE, AG, BT, CE, CH, CS, EC, EE, IN, ME, MN, MT, PI and TF will contain few questions on Engineering Mathematics carrying 15 marks.

5.GATE 2010 score is valid for TWO YEARS from the date of announcement of the GATE 2010 results

6.

1. Biotechnology (BT) has been introduced as an independent paper from GATE 2010.

2.Common Component of General Aptitude (GA) introduced in GATE 2010: Each GATE paper shall have a common General Aptitude (GA) component carrying 15 marks from GATE 2010.

3. Q.56 to Q.60 : From General Aptitude (GA) will carry one mark each (sub-total 5 marks).1/3 marks will be deducted for each wrong answer.Q.61 to Q.65 : From GA will carry two marks each (sub-total 10 marks).2/3 mark will be deducted for each wrong answer.

4. All the papers bearing the codes AE, AG, BT, CE, CH, CS, EC, EE, IN, ME, MN, MT, PI and TF will contain few questions on Engineering Mathematics carrying 15 marks.

5.GATE 2010 score is valid for TWO YEARS from the date of announcement of the GATE 2010 results

6.

## Saturday, August 29, 2009

### History of cricket

एक नए शोध में दावा किया गया है कि क्रिकेट मूल रूप से ब्रिटेन का खेल नहीं है बल्कि उत्तर बेल्जियम के अप्रवासियों के जरिए इंग्लैंड लाया गया है। एक कविता जिसके बारे में कहा जाता है कि यह 1533

में लिखी गई थी, उसकी खोज से ये बात सामने आई है कि ये खेल फ्लैंडर्स में शुरू हुआ था।

ऑस्ट्रेलियन नैशनल यूनिवर्सिटी के पॉल काम्पलेक्स के अनुसार जॉन स्केलटन की रचनाओं में फ्लेमी बुनकरों को 'किंग ऑफ क्रिकेटर्स' कहा गया है। इस खोज ने पुराने तथ्य को चुनौती दी है जिसके अनुसार ये मान लिया गया था कि क्रिकेट का खेल अंग्रेज बच्चों के खेलकूद से निकला है। इंग्लैंड में इसका पहला निश्चित उल्लेख 16वीं शताब्दी में मिलता है जब चर्च से भाग कर खेलने वालों पर जुर्माना लगाया गया था।

इस देश में जनसाधारण के इस खेल को पब्लिक स्कूल, ऑक्सफर्ड और कैम्ब्रिज जैसी यूनिवर्सिटियों में अगली शताब्दी में शामिल कर लिया गया। पहले क्रिकेट क्लब की स्थापना हैम्बेलडन में 1760 में हुई और सुप्रसिद्ध मेरिलेबॉन क्रिकेट क्लब (एमसीसी)की स्थापना 1787 में हुई।

लेकिन जर्मन शोधकर्ता और उनके ऑस्ट्रेलियाई सहयोगी कैम्पबेल ने कहा है कि इस खोज से ये साबित होता है कि कुछ भी हो यह विशिष्ट ब्रितानी खेल ब्रितानी नहीं है। कैम्पबेल ने 16वीं शताब्दी की एक रचना 'द दमेज ऑफ इपोक्रिसी' में क्रिकेट का एक उल्लेख ढूंढ निकाला है। इस रचना को अंग्रेजी के कवि स्केलटन से जोड़ा जाता है और इसमें फ्लेमी बुनकरों का जिक्र मिलता है जो दक्षिण-पूर्वी इंग्लैंड में जा बसे थे। उन्हें 'किंग ऑफ क्रिकेट' यानी क्रिकेट का बादशाह कहा गया है। इसमें विकेट का भी जिक्र है। आपको यह सोच कर हैरानी होगी कि बेल्जियम क्रिकेट नहीं खेलता है।

में लिखी गई थी, उसकी खोज से ये बात सामने आई है कि ये खेल फ्लैंडर्स में शुरू हुआ था।

ऑस्ट्रेलियन नैशनल यूनिवर्सिटी के पॉल काम्पलेक्स के अनुसार जॉन स्केलटन की रचनाओं में फ्लेमी बुनकरों को 'किंग ऑफ क्रिकेटर्स' कहा गया है। इस खोज ने पुराने तथ्य को चुनौती दी है जिसके अनुसार ये मान लिया गया था कि क्रिकेट का खेल अंग्रेज बच्चों के खेलकूद से निकला है। इंग्लैंड में इसका पहला निश्चित उल्लेख 16वीं शताब्दी में मिलता है जब चर्च से भाग कर खेलने वालों पर जुर्माना लगाया गया था।

इस देश में जनसाधारण के इस खेल को पब्लिक स्कूल, ऑक्सफर्ड और कैम्ब्रिज जैसी यूनिवर्सिटियों में अगली शताब्दी में शामिल कर लिया गया। पहले क्रिकेट क्लब की स्थापना हैम्बेलडन में 1760 में हुई और सुप्रसिद्ध मेरिलेबॉन क्रिकेट क्लब (एमसीसी)की स्थापना 1787 में हुई।

लेकिन जर्मन शोधकर्ता और उनके ऑस्ट्रेलियाई सहयोगी कैम्पबेल ने कहा है कि इस खोज से ये साबित होता है कि कुछ भी हो यह विशिष्ट ब्रितानी खेल ब्रितानी नहीं है। कैम्पबेल ने 16वीं शताब्दी की एक रचना 'द दमेज ऑफ इपोक्रिसी' में क्रिकेट का एक उल्लेख ढूंढ निकाला है। इस रचना को अंग्रेजी के कवि स्केलटन से जोड़ा जाता है और इसमें फ्लेमी बुनकरों का जिक्र मिलता है जो दक्षिण-पूर्वी इंग्लैंड में जा बसे थे। उन्हें 'किंग ऑफ क्रिकेट' यानी क्रिकेट का बादशाह कहा गया है। इसमें विकेट का भी जिक्र है। आपको यह सोच कर हैरानी होगी कि बेल्जियम क्रिकेट नहीं खेलता है।

Labels:
cricket,
history of cricket

## Sunday, July 19, 2009

### ISRO elctronics syllabus

* Network graphs: matrices associated with graphs; incidence, fundamental cut set and fundamental circuit matrices.

* Solution methods: nodal and mesh analysis.

* Network theorems: superposition, Thevenin and Norton’s maximum power transfer, Wye-Delta transformation. Steady state sinusoidal analysis using phasors. Linear constant coefficient differential equations; time domain analysis simple RLC circuits, Solution of network equations using Laplace transform; frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits.

* 2-port network parameters: driving point and transfer functions. State equations for networks.

* Electronic Devices: Energy bands in silicon, intrinsic and extrinsic silicon.

* Carrier transport in silicon: diffusion current, drift current, mobility, resistivity. Generation and recombination of carriers. p-n junction diode, Zener diode, tunnel diode, BJT, JFET, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, p-I-n and avalanche photo diode, LASERs. Device technology: integrated circuits fabrication process, oxidation, diffusion, ion implanation, photolithography, n-tub, p-tub and twin-tub CMOS process.

* Analog Circuits: Equivalent circuits (large and small-signal) of diodes, BJTs, JFETs, and MOSFETs. Simple diode circuits, clipping, clamping, recitifier. Biasing and bias stability of transistor and FET amplifiers.

* Amplifiers: single-and multi-stage, differential, operational, feedback and power. Analysis of amplifiers; frequency response of amplifiers. Simple op-amp circuits. Filters. Sinusoidal oscillators; criterion for oscillation; single-transistor and op-amp configurations. Function generators and wave-shaping circuits. Power supplies.

* Digital circuits: Boolean algebra, minimization of Boolean functions; logic gates digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinational circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers and decoders.

* Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs, DACs. Semiconductor memories.

* Microprocessor(8085): architecture, programming, memory and I/O interfacing.

* Signals and Systems: Definitions and properties of Laplace transform, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier seris, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier Transform, z-transform. Sampling theorems. Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) Systems: definitions and properties; casuality, stability, impulse response, convoilution, poles and zeros frequency response, group delay, phase delay. Signal transmission through LTI systems.

* Random signals and noise: probability, random variables, probability density function, autocorrelation, power spectral density.

* Controls Systems: Basic control system components; block diagrammatic description, reduction of block diagrams. Open loop and closed loop (feedback) systems and stability analysis of these systems. Signal flow graphs and their use in determining transfer functions of systems; transient and steady state analysis of LTI control systems and frequency response.

* Tools and techniques for LTI control system analysis: root loci, Routh-Hurwitz criterion, Bode and Nyquist plots.

* Control system compensators: elements of lead and lag compensation, elements of Proporational-Integral-Derivative(PID) control. State variable representation and solution of state equation of LTI control systems.

* Communications: Analog communication systems: amplitude and angle modulation and demodulation systems, spectral analysis of these operations, superheterodyne receivers; elements of hardware, realizations of analog communication systems; signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) calculations for amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) for low noise conditions.

* Digital communication systems: pulse code modulation (PCM), differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), delta modulation (DM); digital modulation schemes-amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK), matched filter receivers, bandwith consideration and probability of error calculations for these schemes.

* Electromagnetics: Elements of vector calculus: divergence and curl; Gauss’ and Stokes’ theorems, Maxwell’s equations: differential and integral forms. Wave equation, Poynting vector.

* Plane waves: propagation through various media; reflection and refraction; phase and group velocity; skin depth.

* Transmission lines: characteristic impedance; impedance transformation; Smith chart; impedance matching; pulse excitation.

* Waveguides: modes in rectangular waveguides; boundary conditions; cut-off frequencies; dispersion relations.

* Antennas: Dipole antennas; antenna arrays; radiation pattern; reciprocity theorem, antenna gain.

Disclaimer: We do not take any responsibility of the accuracy of the information provided on this site. You are requested to verify and confirm the final details from the concerned company or department.

* Solution methods: nodal and mesh analysis.

* Network theorems: superposition, Thevenin and Norton’s maximum power transfer, Wye-Delta transformation. Steady state sinusoidal analysis using phasors. Linear constant coefficient differential equations; time domain analysis simple RLC circuits, Solution of network equations using Laplace transform; frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits.

* 2-port network parameters: driving point and transfer functions. State equations for networks.

* Electronic Devices: Energy bands in silicon, intrinsic and extrinsic silicon.

* Carrier transport in silicon: diffusion current, drift current, mobility, resistivity. Generation and recombination of carriers. p-n junction diode, Zener diode, tunnel diode, BJT, JFET, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, p-I-n and avalanche photo diode, LASERs. Device technology: integrated circuits fabrication process, oxidation, diffusion, ion implanation, photolithography, n-tub, p-tub and twin-tub CMOS process.

* Analog Circuits: Equivalent circuits (large and small-signal) of diodes, BJTs, JFETs, and MOSFETs. Simple diode circuits, clipping, clamping, recitifier. Biasing and bias stability of transistor and FET amplifiers.

* Amplifiers: single-and multi-stage, differential, operational, feedback and power. Analysis of amplifiers; frequency response of amplifiers. Simple op-amp circuits. Filters. Sinusoidal oscillators; criterion for oscillation; single-transistor and op-amp configurations. Function generators and wave-shaping circuits. Power supplies.

* Digital circuits: Boolean algebra, minimization of Boolean functions; logic gates digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinational circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers and decoders.

* Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs, DACs. Semiconductor memories.

* Microprocessor(8085): architecture, programming, memory and I/O interfacing.

* Signals and Systems: Definitions and properties of Laplace transform, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier seris, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier Transform, z-transform. Sampling theorems. Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) Systems: definitions and properties; casuality, stability, impulse response, convoilution, poles and zeros frequency response, group delay, phase delay. Signal transmission through LTI systems.

* Random signals and noise: probability, random variables, probability density function, autocorrelation, power spectral density.

* Controls Systems: Basic control system components; block diagrammatic description, reduction of block diagrams. Open loop and closed loop (feedback) systems and stability analysis of these systems. Signal flow graphs and their use in determining transfer functions of systems; transient and steady state analysis of LTI control systems and frequency response.

* Tools and techniques for LTI control system analysis: root loci, Routh-Hurwitz criterion, Bode and Nyquist plots.

* Control system compensators: elements of lead and lag compensation, elements of Proporational-Integral-Derivative(PID) control. State variable representation and solution of state equation of LTI control systems.

* Communications: Analog communication systems: amplitude and angle modulation and demodulation systems, spectral analysis of these operations, superheterodyne receivers; elements of hardware, realizations of analog communication systems; signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) calculations for amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) for low noise conditions.

* Digital communication systems: pulse code modulation (PCM), differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), delta modulation (DM); digital modulation schemes-amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK), matched filter receivers, bandwith consideration and probability of error calculations for these schemes.

* Electromagnetics: Elements of vector calculus: divergence and curl; Gauss’ and Stokes’ theorems, Maxwell’s equations: differential and integral forms. Wave equation, Poynting vector.

* Plane waves: propagation through various media; reflection and refraction; phase and group velocity; skin depth.

* Transmission lines: characteristic impedance; impedance transformation; Smith chart; impedance matching; pulse excitation.

* Waveguides: modes in rectangular waveguides; boundary conditions; cut-off frequencies; dispersion relations.

* Antennas: Dipole antennas; antenna arrays; radiation pattern; reciprocity theorem, antenna gain.

Disclaimer: We do not take any responsibility of the accuracy of the information provided on this site. You are requested to verify and confirm the final details from the concerned company or department.

Labels:
elctronics,
ISRO,
jobs in isro

## Monday, June 15, 2009

### books for IES

Recommended Books for IES

Books for IES Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering

- Network Analysis: Van Valkenburg

- Network and Systems: D. Roy Choudhary

- Integrated Electronics: Jacob Milman & C. Halkias, Millman & Grabel

- Integrated Circuits: K.R. Botkar

- Op. Amps & Linear Integrated Circuit: Gayakwad

- Digital Logic & Computer Design: Moris Mano

- Signals and System: Oppehum, Willsky & Nacob

- Automatic Control System: Benjamin C. Kuo

- Control System Engineering: Nagrath & Gopal

- Principle of Communication System: Taub & Schilling

- Communication System: A. Bruu Carlson

- Electromagnetic Waves & Radiating Systems: Jardon & Balmain, JD Kraus

Books for IES Electrical Engineering

- Network Analysis: Van Valkenburg

- Electromagnetic: Willain H. Hayt

- Electrical Machinery: PS Bhimra

- Electrical Machines: Nagrath & Kothari

- Power System Engineering: Nagrath & Kothari

- Electric Power Systems: CL Wadhwa

- Automatic Control System: Benjamin C. Kuo

- Control System Engineering: Nagrath & Gopal

- Electrical & Electronic Measurement and Instrumentation: AK Sawhney

- Integrated Electronics: Milman & Halkias, Millma & Grobel

- Digital Logic & Computer Design: Morris Mano

- Power Electronics: PS Bhimra

Books for IES Civil Engineering

- Strength of Materials: Gere & Temoshenko, B C Punamia

- Structural Analysis: Negi, S Ramamurtham, C K Vang

- Concrete Structures: Punamia & Jain, H J Shah

- Steel Structures: Duggal

- Soil Mechanics & Foundation Engineering: Ranjan & Rao, Venkat Ramaiha, S K Garg

- Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics: Modi & Seth, R K Bansal, Subramanyam

- Hydrology: Subramanyam

- Irrigation: S K Garg

- Highway Engineering: Khanna & Jasto, Kadiyali

Books for IES Mechanical Engineering

- Enginnering Thermodynamics: PK Nag

- IC Engine: ML Mathur and RP Sharma

- Gas Turbine and Propulsive Systems: PR Khajuria & SP Dubey

- Fluid Mechanics: Modi & Seth, RK Bansal

- Compressible Flow: SM Yahya

- Heat and Mass Transfer: JP Hollman, RC Sachdeva

- Refrigeration and Air Conditioning: CP Arora, Domkundwar

- Fluid Machinery: Jagdish Lal, RK Bansal

- Theory of Machines: RS Khurmi, Malik & Ghosh

- Mechanical Vibration: Grover

- Machine Design: Shigley, VB Bhandari

- Material Science: WD Callister, IP Singh

- Production Engineering: Kalpkjian Schmid, Amitabh Ghosh & AK Malik

- Industrial Engineering: O P Khanna, Buffa & Sarin

- Operations Research: Kanti Swarup

- Strength of Materials: Gere & Timoshenko, BC unamia, Sadhu Singh

Books for IES Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering

- Network Analysis: Van Valkenburg

- Network and Systems: D. Roy Choudhary

- Integrated Electronics: Jacob Milman & C. Halkias, Millman & Grabel

- Integrated Circuits: K.R. Botkar

- Op. Amps & Linear Integrated Circuit: Gayakwad

- Digital Logic & Computer Design: Moris Mano

- Signals and System: Oppehum, Willsky & Nacob

- Automatic Control System: Benjamin C. Kuo

- Control System Engineering: Nagrath & Gopal

- Principle of Communication System: Taub & Schilling

- Communication System: A. Bruu Carlson

- Electromagnetic Waves & Radiating Systems: Jardon & Balmain, JD Kraus

Books for IES Electrical Engineering

- Network Analysis: Van Valkenburg

- Electromagnetic: Willain H. Hayt

- Electrical Machinery: PS Bhimra

- Electrical Machines: Nagrath & Kothari

- Power System Engineering: Nagrath & Kothari

- Electric Power Systems: CL Wadhwa

- Automatic Control System: Benjamin C. Kuo

- Control System Engineering: Nagrath & Gopal

- Electrical & Electronic Measurement and Instrumentation: AK Sawhney

- Integrated Electronics: Milman & Halkias, Millma & Grobel

- Digital Logic & Computer Design: Morris Mano

- Power Electronics: PS Bhimra

Books for IES Civil Engineering

- Strength of Materials: Gere & Temoshenko, B C Punamia

- Structural Analysis: Negi, S Ramamurtham, C K Vang

- Concrete Structures: Punamia & Jain, H J Shah

- Steel Structures: Duggal

- Soil Mechanics & Foundation Engineering: Ranjan & Rao, Venkat Ramaiha, S K Garg

- Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics: Modi & Seth, R K Bansal, Subramanyam

- Hydrology: Subramanyam

- Irrigation: S K Garg

- Highway Engineering: Khanna & Jasto, Kadiyali

Books for IES Mechanical Engineering

- Enginnering Thermodynamics: PK Nag

- IC Engine: ML Mathur and RP Sharma

- Gas Turbine and Propulsive Systems: PR Khajuria & SP Dubey

- Fluid Mechanics: Modi & Seth, RK Bansal

- Compressible Flow: SM Yahya

- Heat and Mass Transfer: JP Hollman, RC Sachdeva

- Refrigeration and Air Conditioning: CP Arora, Domkundwar

- Fluid Machinery: Jagdish Lal, RK Bansal

- Theory of Machines: RS Khurmi, Malik & Ghosh

- Mechanical Vibration: Grover

- Machine Design: Shigley, VB Bhandari

- Material Science: WD Callister, IP Singh

- Production Engineering: Kalpkjian Schmid, Amitabh Ghosh & AK Malik

- Industrial Engineering: O P Khanna, Buffa & Sarin

- Operations Research: Kanti Swarup

- Strength of Materials: Gere & Timoshenko, BC unamia, Sadhu Singh

Labels:
books,
IES,
IES BOOKS,
study material for IES,
UPSE

## Saturday, June 13, 2009

### GATE syllabus of EE

ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS

Linear Algebra: Matrix Algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors.

Calculus: Mean value theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, Multiple integrals, Fourier series. Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green's theorems.

Differential equations: First order equation (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Method of variation of parameters, Cauchy's and Euler's equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Partial Differential Equations and variable separable method.

Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy's integral theorem and integral formula, Taylor's and Laurent' series, Residue theorem, solution integrals.

Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Discrete and continuous distributions, Poisson, Normal and Binomial distribution, Correlation and regression analysis.

Numerical Methods: Solutions of non-linear algebraic equations, single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

Transform Theory: Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Electric Circuits and Fields: Network graph, KCL, KVL, node and mesh analysis, transient response of dc and ac networks; sinusoidal steady-state analysis, resonance, basic filter concepts; ideal current and voltage sources, Thevenin's, Norton's and Superposition and Maximum Power Transfer theorems, two-port networks, three phase circuits; Gauss Theorem, electric field and potential due to point, line, plane and spherical charge distributions; Ampere's and Biot-Savart's laws; inductance; dielectrics; capacitance.

Signals and Systems: Representation of continuous and discrete-time signals; shifting and scaling operations; linear, time-invariant and causal systems; Fourier series representation of continuous periodic signals; sampling theorem; Fourier, Laplace and Z transforms.

Electrical Machines: Single phase transformer - equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, tests, regulation and efficiency; three phase transformers - connections, parallel operation; auto-transformer; energy conversion principles; DC machines - types, windings, generator characteristics, armature reaction and commutation, starting and speed control of motors; three phase induction motors - principles, types, performance characteristics, starting and speed control; single phase induction motors; synchronous machines - performance, regulation and parallel operation of generators, motor starting, characteristics and applications; servo and stepper motors.

Power Systems: Basic power generation concepts; transmission line models and performance; cable performance, insulation; corona and radio interference; distribution systems; per-unit quantities; bus impedance and admittance matrices; load flow; voltage control; power factor correction; economic operation; symmetrical components; fault analysis; principles of over-current, differential and distance protection; solid state relays and digital protection; circuit breakers; system stability concepts, swing curves and equal area criterion; HVDC transmission and FACTS concepts.

Control Systems: Principles of feedback; transfer function; block diagrams; steady-state errors; Routh and Niquist techniques; Bode plots; root loci; lag, lead and lead-lag compensation; state space model; state transition matrix, controllability and observability.

Electrical and Electronic Measurements: Bridges and potentiometers; PMMC, moving iron, dynamometer and induction type instruments; measurement of voltage, current, power, energy and power factor; instrument transformers; digital voltmeters and multimeters; phase, time and frequency measurement; Q-meters; oscilloscopes; potentiometric recorders; error analysis.

Analog and Digital Electronics: Characteristics of diodes, BJT, FET; amplifiers - biasing, equivalent circuit and frequency response; oscillators and feedback amplifiers; operational amplifiers - characteristics and applications; simple active filters; VCOs and timers; combinational and sequential logic circuits; multiplexer; Schmitt trigger; multi-vibrators; sample and hold circuits; A/D and D/A converters; 8-bit microprocessor basics, architecture, programming and interfacing.

Power Electronics and Drives: Semiconductor power diodes, transistors, thyristors, triacs, GTOs, MOSFETs and IGBTs - static characteristics and principles of operation; triggering circuits; phase control rectifiers; bridge converters - fully controlled and half controlled; principles of choppers and inverters; basis concepts of adjustable speed dc and ac drives.

Linear Algebra: Matrix Algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors.

Calculus: Mean value theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, Multiple integrals, Fourier series. Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green's theorems.

Differential equations: First order equation (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Method of variation of parameters, Cauchy's and Euler's equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Partial Differential Equations and variable separable method.

Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy's integral theorem and integral formula, Taylor's and Laurent' series, Residue theorem, solution integrals.

Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Discrete and continuous distributions, Poisson, Normal and Binomial distribution, Correlation and regression analysis.

Numerical Methods: Solutions of non-linear algebraic equations, single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

Transform Theory: Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Electric Circuits and Fields: Network graph, KCL, KVL, node and mesh analysis, transient response of dc and ac networks; sinusoidal steady-state analysis, resonance, basic filter concepts; ideal current and voltage sources, Thevenin's, Norton's and Superposition and Maximum Power Transfer theorems, two-port networks, three phase circuits; Gauss Theorem, electric field and potential due to point, line, plane and spherical charge distributions; Ampere's and Biot-Savart's laws; inductance; dielectrics; capacitance.

Signals and Systems: Representation of continuous and discrete-time signals; shifting and scaling operations; linear, time-invariant and causal systems; Fourier series representation of continuous periodic signals; sampling theorem; Fourier, Laplace and Z transforms.

Electrical Machines: Single phase transformer - equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, tests, regulation and efficiency; three phase transformers - connections, parallel operation; auto-transformer; energy conversion principles; DC machines - types, windings, generator characteristics, armature reaction and commutation, starting and speed control of motors; three phase induction motors - principles, types, performance characteristics, starting and speed control; single phase induction motors; synchronous machines - performance, regulation and parallel operation of generators, motor starting, characteristics and applications; servo and stepper motors.

Power Systems: Basic power generation concepts; transmission line models and performance; cable performance, insulation; corona and radio interference; distribution systems; per-unit quantities; bus impedance and admittance matrices; load flow; voltage control; power factor correction; economic operation; symmetrical components; fault analysis; principles of over-current, differential and distance protection; solid state relays and digital protection; circuit breakers; system stability concepts, swing curves and equal area criterion; HVDC transmission and FACTS concepts.

Control Systems: Principles of feedback; transfer function; block diagrams; steady-state errors; Routh and Niquist techniques; Bode plots; root loci; lag, lead and lead-lag compensation; state space model; state transition matrix, controllability and observability.

Electrical and Electronic Measurements: Bridges and potentiometers; PMMC, moving iron, dynamometer and induction type instruments; measurement of voltage, current, power, energy and power factor; instrument transformers; digital voltmeters and multimeters; phase, time and frequency measurement; Q-meters; oscilloscopes; potentiometric recorders; error analysis.

Analog and Digital Electronics: Characteristics of diodes, BJT, FET; amplifiers - biasing, equivalent circuit and frequency response; oscillators and feedback amplifiers; operational amplifiers - characteristics and applications; simple active filters; VCOs and timers; combinational and sequential logic circuits; multiplexer; Schmitt trigger; multi-vibrators; sample and hold circuits; A/D and D/A converters; 8-bit microprocessor basics, architecture, programming and interfacing.

Power Electronics and Drives: Semiconductor power diodes, transistors, thyristors, triacs, GTOs, MOSFETs and IGBTs - static characteristics and principles of operation; triggering circuits; phase control rectifiers; bridge converters - fully controlled and half controlled; principles of choppers and inverters; basis concepts of adjustable speed dc and ac drives.

Labels:
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GATE study,
Higher education,
WBUT

## Friday, June 12, 2009

### Microelectronic & optoelectronic quastion of 2007 ,4th sem ECE ,WBUT

Microelectronic and optoelectronic 2007 ,wbut 4th semester

GROUP-B

2. Derive the one dimensional continuity equation for minority carriers in generation recombination process, under low injection condition.Gn, GP, Rn and Rp are generation and recombination rates for electron/hole.

3. What is population inversion in laser? What is external quantum efficiency in a semiconductor laser? What is the optical feedback and oscillation by which the amplified coherent emission is obtained?

4. An n-type semiconductor at thermal equilibrium(T=300K) has a linear variation in doping concentration given by Nd(x)=1016-1919x, 0≤x≤1µm.Determine induced electric field. (volt equivalent temperature at room temperature =0.02V)

5. Discuss the principle of operation of vertical power BJT.

6. With energy band diagram describe schottky junction barrier formation . Describe its operation under external bias.

GROUP-C

7. (a) What is SCR? point out its major uses.

(b0 By using two transistor analog, briefly describe the operation of two terminal scr.

(c) Is it possible to observe the purpose of SCR by connecting two transistors? Explain.

(d) How does the presence of third terminal control the I-V response of SCR? Explain with system diagram.

8. (a) Sketch the ideal energy band diagram of a metal-semiconductor junction in which Фm<фs. Explin why this is an ohmic contact.

(b) Discuss how 2D-electorn gas is formed ain semiconductor heterojuction.

(c) the schottky barrier of a Si schottky junction is фBN=0.59v,the effective Richardson is A=111A/K2-cm2 and the crosssection area is a=10-4cm2

for T=100k, calculate

(i) Ideal reverse saturation current

(ii) The diode current for V (applied)=0.30V.

9. (a) Illustrate the basic process flow in micromanaging? What do you mean by optical lithography?

(b) What do you mean by plasma etching?

(c) Explain one non-lithographic microfabrication technology.

10. (a) What is the advantage of optical fibre over the copper wire system ?

(b) What is the difference between step index and graded index fibres?

(c) Distinguish between non-radiative and radiative recombination processes in a semiconductor .Express the internal quantum efficiency in terms of the life times of the process.

(d) Asilican optical fiber has a core refractive index of 1.5 and the cladding refractive index of 1.450 . calculate

(i) the critical angle for the core cladding interface.

(ii) the acceptance angle in air for fiber .

(iii) the nimerical aperture (NA) of the fiber.

11. Write short note on any three of the following

(a) Solar cell

(b) semiconductor laser

(c) Insulated bipolar junction transistor

(d) P-I-N photodiode

(e) O.E.I.C.

GROUP-B

2. Derive the one dimensional continuity equation for minority carriers in generation recombination process, under low injection condition.Gn, GP, Rn and Rp are generation and recombination rates for electron/hole.

3. What is population inversion in laser? What is external quantum efficiency in a semiconductor laser? What is the optical feedback and oscillation by which the amplified coherent emission is obtained?

4. An n-type semiconductor at thermal equilibrium(T=300K) has a linear variation in doping concentration given by Nd(x)=1016-1919x, 0≤x≤1µm.Determine induced electric field. (volt equivalent temperature at room temperature =0.02V)

5. Discuss the principle of operation of vertical power BJT.

6. With energy band diagram describe schottky junction barrier formation . Describe its operation under external bias.

GROUP-C

7. (a) What is SCR? point out its major uses.

(b0 By using two transistor analog, briefly describe the operation of two terminal scr.

(c) Is it possible to observe the purpose of SCR by connecting two transistors? Explain.

(d) How does the presence of third terminal control the I-V response of SCR? Explain with system diagram.

8. (a) Sketch the ideal energy band diagram of a metal-semiconductor junction in which Фm<фs. Explin why this is an ohmic contact.

(b) Discuss how 2D-electorn gas is formed ain semiconductor heterojuction.

(c) the schottky barrier of a Si schottky junction is фBN=0.59v,the effective Richardson is A=111A/K2-cm2 and the crosssection area is a=10-4cm2

for T=100k, calculate

(i) Ideal reverse saturation current

(ii) The diode current for V (applied)=0.30V.

9. (a) Illustrate the basic process flow in micromanaging? What do you mean by optical lithography?

(b) What do you mean by plasma etching?

(c) Explain one non-lithographic microfabrication technology.

10. (a) What is the advantage of optical fibre over the copper wire system ?

(b) What is the difference between step index and graded index fibres?

(c) Distinguish between non-radiative and radiative recombination processes in a semiconductor .Express the internal quantum efficiency in terms of the life times of the process.

(d) Asilican optical fiber has a core refractive index of 1.5 and the cladding refractive index of 1.450 . calculate

(i) the critical angle for the core cladding interface.

(ii) the acceptance angle in air for fiber .

(iii) the nimerical aperture (NA) of the fiber.

11. Write short note on any three of the following

(a) Solar cell

(b) semiconductor laser

(c) Insulated bipolar junction transistor

(d) P-I-N photodiode

(e) O.E.I.C.

## Friday, June 5, 2009

### WBUT question of Analog communication 2007

2007

ANALOG COMMUNICATION

GROUP-B

2 (A) Define amplitude modulation and modulation index. Use a sketch of sinusoidally modulated AM waveform to help to explain the definition.

(b) Derive the expression between the output power of an AM transmitter and the depth of modulation.

3. What is angle modulation ? Justify that frequency modulation is an angle modulation.

4. drive the expression of single to noise ratio of DSB-SC system.

5.(A)What do you mean by FDM? when it is used?

(b) What is Carson's rile?

6. The equation for an FM wave is

S(t)=10sin(5.7×108t + 5sin12×103t)

Calculate:

(a) carrier frequency

(b) modulating frquency

(c) frequency deviation

(d) modulation index

(e) power dissipated in 100 ohm

GROUP-C

7.(a) What is the concept behind NBFM ? Drive its equation.

(b) Explain how FM can be generated using VCO.

(c) Discuss about the roles of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis circuit in FM

broadcasting.

8.(a) Draw the block diagram for generation and detection of PCM system.

(b) What is quantization? Find signal to quantization noise ratio for PCM system.

(c) A signal is sampled at Nyquist rate of 8 kHz and is quantized using 8 bit uniform quantizer. Assuming SNRq for a sinusoidal signal, calculate bit rate, SNRq and BW.

9 (a) State and prove parseval's power theorem.

(b) Describe with a block diagram the principle of operation of a square low modulator generating DSB-SC.

(c) Explain the advantages and disadvantages of modulation.

10 (a) Draw the block diagram of a superheterodyne receiver and explain its working principle .

(b) Explain the operation of balanced modulator.

11 Write short notes on any three of the following :

(a) Entropy and its properties

(b) QCM

(c) termal noise

(d) power spectral density function

(e) pulse coded modulation

ANALOG COMMUNICATION

GROUP-B

2 (A) Define amplitude modulation and modulation index. Use a sketch of sinusoidally modulated AM waveform to help to explain the definition.

(b) Derive the expression between the output power of an AM transmitter and the depth of modulation.

3. What is angle modulation ? Justify that frequency modulation is an angle modulation.

4. drive the expression of single to noise ratio of DSB-SC system.

5.(A)What do you mean by FDM? when it is used?

(b) What is Carson's rile?

6. The equation for an FM wave is

S(t)=10sin(5.7×108t + 5sin12×103t)

Calculate:

(a) carrier frequency

(b) modulating frquency

(c) frequency deviation

(d) modulation index

(e) power dissipated in 100 ohm

GROUP-C

7.(a) What is the concept behind NBFM ? Drive its equation.

(b) Explain how FM can be generated using VCO.

(c) Discuss about the roles of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis circuit in FM

broadcasting.

8.(a) Draw the block diagram for generation and detection of PCM system.

(b) What is quantization? Find signal to quantization noise ratio for PCM system.

(c) A signal is sampled at Nyquist rate of 8 kHz and is quantized using 8 bit uniform quantizer. Assuming SNRq for a sinusoidal signal, calculate bit rate, SNRq and BW.

9 (a) State and prove parseval's power theorem.

(b) Describe with a block diagram the principle of operation of a square low modulator generating DSB-SC.

(c) Explain the advantages and disadvantages of modulation.

10 (a) Draw the block diagram of a superheterodyne receiver and explain its working principle .

(b) Explain the operation of balanced modulator.

11 Write short notes on any three of the following :

(a) Entropy and its properties

(b) QCM

(c) termal noise

(d) power spectral density function

(e) pulse coded modulation

Labels:
question paper,
WBUT,
WBUT question,
wbut question papers

## Tuesday, June 2, 2009

### Question of WBUT Analog circuit of 2008 4th sem ECE

hi my friends form 3rd june B.TECH exam of WBUT is start ,so i going to post the Question paper of 2008 of ECE 4th sem .i try to post the question paper before exam.so today i am posting the question of anlog circuit of 4th sem because the frist exam is analog circuit on 4th june.

the Question is as follows(objective question are not given)

QUESTION of 2008

GROUP-B

2. Draw and explain half wave rectifier.

3. compare between class A,class B,and class AB amplifier.

4. what is the advantages and disadvantages of feedback in amplifier?What are the type of feedback required for (i) voltage amplifier (ii) current amplifier?

5. Draw and explain the operation of Hartley oscillator.

6. What is clipper?with help of circuit diagram and wave forms,describe the operation of a positive and negative clipper.

GROUP-C

7 (a) Draw and explain briefly the circuit of single stage current series feedback amplifier . Mention effect of negative feedback on gain and bandwidth.(b) Write down the barkhausen criterion for sinusoidal oscillation.Obtain expression for output frequency and condition to sustain oscillation of a RC phase shift oscillator.

(c) What are the advantages of differential amplifier?

8 (a) a numerical problem form op-amp.

(b) Write down the criteria of good instrumentation amplifier. Draw the circuit of an instrumentation amplifier using a transducer bridge and explain its operation.

(C) Realize multiplier using logarithmic amplifier. Mention application of analog multiplier.

9 (a) Draw the circuit and explain voltage to current converter (Grounded load) .

(B)Explain the Op-Amp integrator circuit .

(c) What is voltage follower ?

10. (a) what is function of voltage regulator ?

(b) Give and explain the important parts of series regulated power supply using discrete component.

(c) Draw the function diagram of 723 regulator.

11.Write short notes on any three of the follwing.

(A) Push pull amplifier

(B) Wein bridge oscillator

(C) Bridge rectifier

(D) clamping circuit

(e) Logarithmic amplifier.

this is question of 2008

bast of luck for sem.

the Question is as follows(objective question are not given)

QUESTION of 2008

GROUP-B

2. Draw and explain half wave rectifier.

3. compare between class A,class B,and class AB amplifier.

4. what is the advantages and disadvantages of feedback in amplifier?What are the type of feedback required for (i) voltage amplifier (ii) current amplifier?

5. Draw and explain the operation of Hartley oscillator.

6. What is clipper?with help of circuit diagram and wave forms,describe the operation of a positive and negative clipper.

GROUP-C

7 (a) Draw and explain briefly the circuit of single stage current series feedback amplifier . Mention effect of negative feedback on gain and bandwidth.(b) Write down the barkhausen criterion for sinusoidal oscillation.Obtain expression for output frequency and condition to sustain oscillation of a RC phase shift oscillator.

(c) What are the advantages of differential amplifier?

8 (a) a numerical problem form op-amp.

(b) Write down the criteria of good instrumentation amplifier. Draw the circuit of an instrumentation amplifier using a transducer bridge and explain its operation.

(C) Realize multiplier using logarithmic amplifier. Mention application of analog multiplier.

9 (a) Draw the circuit and explain voltage to current converter (Grounded load) .

(B)Explain the Op-Amp integrator circuit .

(c) What is voltage follower ?

10. (a) what is function of voltage regulator ?

(b) Give and explain the important parts of series regulated power supply using discrete component.

(c) Draw the function diagram of 723 regulator.

11.Write short notes on any three of the follwing.

(A) Push pull amplifier

(B) Wein bridge oscillator

(C) Bridge rectifier

(D) clamping circuit

(e) Logarithmic amplifier.

this is question of 2008

bast of luck for sem.

Labels:
Analog cricuit,
WBUT,
WBUT question

## Friday, May 22, 2009

### ouestion for WBUT upcoming exam 4th sem ECE

Analog Electronics & Circuits

EC-401

Time:3 Hours TotalMarks-70

Group-A

Answer any ten questions 10 x 1= 10

1.i) In a full wave rectifier if the input frequency is 50 Hz then frequency at the output of the filter is

(a) 50 Hz (b)75 Hz (c) 75 Hz (d) 0 Hz

ii) To obtain high input and output impedance the type of the feedback amplifier is (a)Voltage series (b) Current series (c) Voltage shunt (d) Current shunt

iii) An OP-AMP has gain bandwidth product of 1 MHz and a voltage gain of 20 dB .Then the -3dB bandwidth of the OP-AMP will be

(a) 50 kHz (b) 100 kHz (c) 1000/17 (d) 1000/7.07

iv) Wide range of high purity sine wave can be generated by

(a) RC-phase shift oscillator (b) Crystal oscillator (c) Wein bridge oscillator d) Hartley oscillator

v) The slew rate of an OP-AMP is 0.5V/μs.The maximum frequency of a sinusoidal input of 2Vrms that can be handled without excessive distortion is

(a) 3 kHz (b) 30 kHz (c) 200 kHz (d) 2 MHz

vi) In order to generate a square waveform from a sinusoidal input signal the choice of the circuit is

(a) Schmitt trigger (b) Clipper and amplifier (c) Monostable Multivibrator (d) Both a and c

vii) An increase in the ambient temperature means that maximum power rating of the transistor

(a) will increase (b) will decrease (c) may increase or decrease (d) may increase or remain the same.

viii) The threshold voltage of an n channel enhancement mode MOSFET is 0.5 ,when the device is biased at a gate voltage of 3V,pinch of will be occur at a drain voltage of

(a) 1.5 V (b) 2.5 V (c) 3.5 V (d) 4.5 V

ix) Stability factor (S) for a fixed bias circuit is given by

(a) 1+β (b) 1-β (c) 1/β (d) β-1

x) For maximum unclipped output from a CE amplifier , the Q point should be

(a) at the centre of the DC load line.(b) at the centre of the AC load line (c) at the centre of the collector current (d)none of these.

xi) A CB amplifier has re =6 ohm, RL =600 ohm and α= 0.98.Voltage gain is

(a) 100 (b) 588 (c) 98 (d) 6

xii) For high frequency response of a transistor amplifier suitable model to use is

(a) Lattice network (b) Hybrid-π (c) T-network (d) Kelvin network

xiii) The period of oscillation of a symmetrical multivibrator depends upon the discharging time constant and is roughly given by

(a) T=1.4RC (b) T=RC/14 (c) T=1.4 √(RC) (d) T= √(1.4) RC

Group-B

Answer any three questions 3 x 5= 15

2. a) Define the term thermal resistance for a power transistor.

b) A Ge transistor has thermal resistance of its junction as 0.33oC/mW and the ambient temperature is 28 oC.Calculate : (i) maximum power dissipation that can be allowed without heat sink, and (ii) ) maximum power dissipation that can be allowed if a heat sink is used,which reduces the thermal resistance of the transistor to 0.09 oC/mW.

2+3=5

3.Draw the Ebers-Moll model of an npn transistor and find out the expression of the transistor terminal currents.

2+3=5

4.An amplifier has a gain A= 60 dB and output impedance of 12 K. It is required to reduce the output impedance to 500 ohm. Calculate the negative feedback required.

5

5.Find out the expression of the stability factor for a voltage divider biased amplifier.

5

6.a)What will be the shape of the output for the following circuit

b) Find out the expression of ripple factor for a half wave rectifier.

2+3=5

Group-C

Answer any three questions 3 x 15= 45

7.a) What are the differences between voltage and power amplifiers ? Why heat sink is used ?

b) Find out the expression of collector efficiency of a class-A amplifier.

c) An crystal has equivalent series inductance L= 3 H and series capacitance C=0.05 Pf and mounting capacitance Cm=10 pF. Calculate the series and parallel resonant frequencies for the crystal.

(4+2)+4+5=15

8.a)Draw a circuit of differential amplifier with an active load connection.

b)What are the advantages of differential amplifier ?

c)Find out the transconductance of the above amplifier.

d) Explain with diagram the operating principle of 555 timer. 3+2+4+6=15

9. a) Draw the circuit of an instrumentation amplifier and find out the expression of Vo.

b) What will be the transfer function of the following circuit. What type of filter it is ?

c) What are the applications of tuned amplifiers ?(2+4)(6+1)+2=15

10.a)Draw the I-V characteristics of a CE configuration transistor

b) What do you mean by early-effect.

c) Show that a transistor can be used as an inverter.

d) Analyze the transistor amplifier (shown below in the figure)using small signal equivalent circuit. Given β = 100.

2+1+4+8=15

11. Write short notes on any of the three from the following given below:

3x5=15

a) Photodiode

b) Wein bridge oscillator.

c) Bistable multivibrator.

d) Enhancement type MOSFET.

e) Schmitt trigger.

i am not able to post the corresponding figure of some question.

this is a question set for upcoming exam of WBUT .

EC-401

Time:3 Hours TotalMarks-70

Group-A

Answer any ten questions 10 x 1= 10

1.i) In a full wave rectifier if the input frequency is 50 Hz then frequency at the output of the filter is

(a) 50 Hz (b)75 Hz (c) 75 Hz (d) 0 Hz

ii) To obtain high input and output impedance the type of the feedback amplifier is (a)Voltage series (b) Current series (c) Voltage shunt (d) Current shunt

iii) An OP-AMP has gain bandwidth product of 1 MHz and a voltage gain of 20 dB .Then the -3dB bandwidth of the OP-AMP will be

(a) 50 kHz (b) 100 kHz (c) 1000/17 (d) 1000/7.07

iv) Wide range of high purity sine wave can be generated by

(a) RC-phase shift oscillator (b) Crystal oscillator (c) Wein bridge oscillator d) Hartley oscillator

v) The slew rate of an OP-AMP is 0.5V/μs.The maximum frequency of a sinusoidal input of 2Vrms that can be handled without excessive distortion is

(a) 3 kHz (b) 30 kHz (c) 200 kHz (d) 2 MHz

vi) In order to generate a square waveform from a sinusoidal input signal the choice of the circuit is

(a) Schmitt trigger (b) Clipper and amplifier (c) Monostable Multivibrator (d) Both a and c

vii) An increase in the ambient temperature means that maximum power rating of the transistor

(a) will increase (b) will decrease (c) may increase or decrease (d) may increase or remain the same.

viii) The threshold voltage of an n channel enhancement mode MOSFET is 0.5 ,when the device is biased at a gate voltage of 3V,pinch of will be occur at a drain voltage of

(a) 1.5 V (b) 2.5 V (c) 3.5 V (d) 4.5 V

ix) Stability factor (S) for a fixed bias circuit is given by

(a) 1+β (b) 1-β (c) 1/β (d) β-1

x) For maximum unclipped output from a CE amplifier , the Q point should be

(a) at the centre of the DC load line.(b) at the centre of the AC load line (c) at the centre of the collector current (d)none of these.

xi) A CB amplifier has re =6 ohm, RL =600 ohm and α= 0.98.Voltage gain is

(a) 100 (b) 588 (c) 98 (d) 6

xii) For high frequency response of a transistor amplifier suitable model to use is

(a) Lattice network (b) Hybrid-π (c) T-network (d) Kelvin network

xiii) The period of oscillation of a symmetrical multivibrator depends upon the discharging time constant and is roughly given by

(a) T=1.4RC (b) T=RC/14 (c) T=1.4 √(RC) (d) T= √(1.4) RC

Group-B

Answer any three questions 3 x 5= 15

2. a) Define the term thermal resistance for a power transistor.

b) A Ge transistor has thermal resistance of its junction as 0.33oC/mW and the ambient temperature is 28 oC.Calculate : (i) maximum power dissipation that can be allowed without heat sink, and (ii) ) maximum power dissipation that can be allowed if a heat sink is used,which reduces the thermal resistance of the transistor to 0.09 oC/mW.

2+3=5

3.Draw the Ebers-Moll model of an npn transistor and find out the expression of the transistor terminal currents.

2+3=5

4.An amplifier has a gain A= 60 dB and output impedance of 12 K. It is required to reduce the output impedance to 500 ohm. Calculate the negative feedback required.

5

5.Find out the expression of the stability factor for a voltage divider biased amplifier.

5

6.a)What will be the shape of the output for the following circuit

b) Find out the expression of ripple factor for a half wave rectifier.

2+3=5

Group-C

Answer any three questions 3 x 15= 45

7.a) What are the differences between voltage and power amplifiers ? Why heat sink is used ?

b) Find out the expression of collector efficiency of a class-A amplifier.

c) An crystal has equivalent series inductance L= 3 H and series capacitance C=0.05 Pf and mounting capacitance Cm=10 pF. Calculate the series and parallel resonant frequencies for the crystal.

(4+2)+4+5=15

8.a)Draw a circuit of differential amplifier with an active load connection.

b)What are the advantages of differential amplifier ?

c)Find out the transconductance of the above amplifier.

d) Explain with diagram the operating principle of 555 timer. 3+2+4+6=15

9. a) Draw the circuit of an instrumentation amplifier and find out the expression of Vo.

b) What will be the transfer function of the following circuit. What type of filter it is ?

c) What are the applications of tuned amplifiers ?(2+4)(6+1)+2=15

10.a)Draw the I-V characteristics of a CE configuration transistor

b) What do you mean by early-effect.

c) Show that a transistor can be used as an inverter.

d) Analyze the transistor amplifier (shown below in the figure)using small signal equivalent circuit. Given β = 100.

2+1+4+8=15

11. Write short notes on any of the three from the following given below:

3x5=15

a) Photodiode

b) Wein bridge oscillator.

c) Bistable multivibrator.

d) Enhancement type MOSFET.

e) Schmitt trigger.

i am not able to post the corresponding figure of some question.

this is a question set for upcoming exam of WBUT .

Labels:
WBUT question

## Tuesday, May 12, 2009

### BOOKS for IES ece student

1. Electronic Devices and Circuits & Analog Electronics--

(i)Integrated electronics : Analog and Digital Circuit and system by Jacob Millman & Christos C. Halkias

(ii)Microelectronic Circuits by Sedra & Smith

(iii)Electronic Devices and Circuits by J.B. Gupta

(iv)OP Amp and linear Integrated Circuit by Ramakant A. Gayakwad

(v)Solid State electronic devices by Streetman and Banerjee

(vi)Semiconductor devices by S.M.Sze

2. Communication System

(i)Communication System by Simon Haykins

(ii)An introduction to Analog and Digital Communication by Simon Haykins

(iii)Communication System : Analog and Digital by Singh and Sapre

(iv)Modern Digital and Analog Communication System by B.P. Lathi

(v)Electronic Communication System by Kennedyand Davis

3.Signal and System by Oppenheim and Willsky

4. Optical Fiber Communication by Senior

5. Satellite Communications by Pratt and Bostian

6. Monochrome and colour by R.R. Gulati

7. Control System

(i)Control System Engg. by I.G. Nagrath & M. Gopal

(ii)Automatic Control System by B.C. Kuo

(iii)Linear Control System by B.S. Manke

8. Electro Magnetic Theory

(i)Elements of Engineering Electromagnetics by N. N. Rao

(ii)Elements of Electromagnetics by Sadiku

(iii)Engineering Electromagnetics by W.H.Hayt

(iv)Antenna and Wave Propagation by K.D. Prasad

9. Digital Electronics

(i)Digital Design by M. Morris Mano

(ii)Digital Systems by Tocci & Widmer

(iii)Modern Digital Electronics by R. P. Jain

10.

Computer Engg.

(i)Microprocessor Architecture, Programming & Application by Ramesh S. Gaonkar

(ii)Computer Organization and Structure byStalling

11. Microwave Engg.

(i)Microwave Devices and Circuits by Liao

(ii)Microwave Engineering by Sanjeev Gupta

(iii)Microwave Engineering by Pozar

12. Network Theory

(i)Networks and Systems by D. Roy Chaudhary

(ii)Engineering Circuit Analysis by Hayt

13. Electrical Engineering Material by S.P. Seth

14. Measurement and Instrumentation

(i)Electrical & Electronic Measurement and Instrumentation by A. K. Sahney

(ii)Electronic Instrumentation by H. S. Kalsi

(i)Integrated electronics : Analog and Digital Circuit and system by Jacob Millman & Christos C. Halkias

(ii)Microelectronic Circuits by Sedra & Smith

(iii)Electronic Devices and Circuits by J.B. Gupta

(iv)OP Amp and linear Integrated Circuit by Ramakant A. Gayakwad

(v)Solid State electronic devices by Streetman and Banerjee

(vi)Semiconductor devices by S.M.Sze

2. Communication System

(i)Communication System by Simon Haykins

(ii)An introduction to Analog and Digital Communication by Simon Haykins

(iii)Communication System : Analog and Digital by Singh and Sapre

(iv)Modern Digital and Analog Communication System by B.P. Lathi

(v)Electronic Communication System by Kennedyand Davis

3.Signal and System by Oppenheim and Willsky

4. Optical Fiber Communication by Senior

5. Satellite Communications by Pratt and Bostian

6. Monochrome and colour by R.R. Gulati

7. Control System

(i)Control System Engg. by I.G. Nagrath & M. Gopal

(ii)Automatic Control System by B.C. Kuo

(iii)Linear Control System by B.S. Manke

8. Electro Magnetic Theory

(i)Elements of Engineering Electromagnetics by N. N. Rao

(ii)Elements of Electromagnetics by Sadiku

(iii)Engineering Electromagnetics by W.H.Hayt

(iv)Antenna and Wave Propagation by K.D. Prasad

9. Digital Electronics

(i)Digital Design by M. Morris Mano

(ii)Digital Systems by Tocci & Widmer

(iii)Modern Digital Electronics by R. P. Jain

10.

Computer Engg.

(i)Microprocessor Architecture, Programming & Application by Ramesh S. Gaonkar

(ii)Computer Organization and Structure byStalling

11. Microwave Engg.

(i)Microwave Devices and Circuits by Liao

(ii)Microwave Engineering by Sanjeev Gupta

(iii)Microwave Engineering by Pozar

12. Network Theory

(i)Networks and Systems by D. Roy Chaudhary

(ii)Engineering Circuit Analysis by Hayt

13. Electrical Engineering Material by S.P. Seth

14. Measurement and Instrumentation

(i)Electrical & Electronic Measurement and Instrumentation by A. K. Sahney

(ii)Electronic Instrumentation by H. S. Kalsi

### EXAMINATION PATTERN

hi dear friends welcome once again

now a days i am little bit busy due to my upcoming semester examination

the even semester examination of WBUT will be start form first week of JUNE due to which i am busy ,All of you know how hard syllabus for engineering course . it like impossible to complete the whole syllabus in 6 months.

Teachers and students both are active just before examination,( before one month of exam). teaches give assignment and practical work just before examination. Every day write 20-30 pages of assignment ,lab copy ,after that if you able to menages time go through your big and boring course book, which so weighted if any one hit you by that book properly you do not able to work for some day.

this is time of examination for all engineering college and universities ,so i talk about study pattern of this universities, i the student come here after completing their 12th ,with some dream ,all the principle which read upto class 12th ,is try to apply in real life with the help of lab.they though this is a place where they show their creativity and do some thing different but due to bad educational police of Indian government this is not happen.

Engineering is a course in which the main focus of study is practical knowledge . but Indian government want to student become clerk rather than engineer . there is a need to change the pattern of educational system .

What you think about it and what kind of changes you want in educational system of India . say your idea .

I am waiting for your valuable comment on this impotent topic because this is matter of India development

now a days i am little bit busy due to my upcoming semester examination

the even semester examination of WBUT will be start form first week of JUNE due to which i am busy ,All of you know how hard syllabus for engineering course . it like impossible to complete the whole syllabus in 6 months.

Teachers and students both are active just before examination,( before one month of exam). teaches give assignment and practical work just before examination. Every day write 20-30 pages of assignment ,lab copy ,after that if you able to menages time go through your big and boring course book, which so weighted if any one hit you by that book properly you do not able to work for some day.

this is time of examination for all engineering college and universities ,so i talk about study pattern of this universities, i the student come here after completing their 12th ,with some dream ,all the principle which read upto class 12th ,is try to apply in real life with the help of lab.they though this is a place where they show their creativity and do some thing different but due to bad educational police of Indian government this is not happen.

Engineering is a course in which the main focus of study is practical knowledge . but Indian government want to student become clerk rather than engineer . there is a need to change the pattern of educational system .

What you think about it and what kind of changes you want in educational system of India . say your idea .

I am waiting for your valuable comment on this impotent topic because this is matter of India development

## Saturday, May 9, 2009

### Study for IIT

hi guys today i am share my experience with you .on topic of how to get high rank in IIT jEE.

ITT JEE is the most popular engineering entrance exam in india ,All the student want to do their B.tech degree for iit . The stander of exam is high and question patter is good and design in such a manner that is able to check the basic understanding of subject matter. so no need to take tension .

All of you know the number of student sitting for this examination is very high and sit are limited ,appor 500000 student are sit for exam and only 7000 sit in all iit institute .so first i clear you one thing about number of student.do not take tension about high number of student. more then 50% student sit in exam only for see how the exam is held ,they only fulfill the desire of their parent to sit in iit ,they are to sit for not for admition in iit .now half of rest are low level student ,they have no ability to rank in iit .so real fight for rank only for 1/4th student.

this is a grate exam and all want to success ., so there is high capitation for rank.

for good rank there are neet to a grate plan

today i say about math

first you see the syllabus of iit . For syllabus see my article syllabus of iit mathematics. now you analyze yourself ,which topic is strong and which one is weak.first thing is, you see which topic is most important means form which topic maximum number of question is asked in JEE . For IIT quadratic equation.inequality ,function,limit ,differentiation ,differential equation,circle,conic section ,this is the most important topic .appox 80% of problem come for thic topic.

First you read entire syllabus and after that you concentrated on important topic , because in IIT question are come in such a way that all topic connected to each other ,i.e. for solve one problem need to concept of different topics.

the cut off of iit is very low in math paper so there is no need solve all the problem ,because for one wrong answer your 1/3 mark of a right answer is reduce . so solve only those problem on which you have confidence .

bast of luck for your upcoming exam.

ITT JEE is the most popular engineering entrance exam in india ,All the student want to do their B.tech degree for iit . The stander of exam is high and question patter is good and design in such a manner that is able to check the basic understanding of subject matter. so no need to take tension .

All of you know the number of student sitting for this examination is very high and sit are limited ,appor 500000 student are sit for exam and only 7000 sit in all iit institute .so first i clear you one thing about number of student.do not take tension about high number of student. more then 50% student sit in exam only for see how the exam is held ,they only fulfill the desire of their parent to sit in iit ,they are to sit for not for admition in iit .now half of rest are low level student ,they have no ability to rank in iit .so real fight for rank only for 1/4th student.

this is a grate exam and all want to success ., so there is high capitation for rank.

for good rank there are neet to a grate plan

today i say about math

first you see the syllabus of iit . For syllabus see my article syllabus of iit mathematics. now you analyze yourself ,which topic is strong and which one is weak.first thing is, you see which topic is most important means form which topic maximum number of question is asked in JEE . For IIT quadratic equation.inequality ,function,limit ,differentiation ,differential equation,circle,conic section ,this is the most important topic .appox 80% of problem come for thic topic.

First you read entire syllabus and after that you concentrated on important topic , because in IIT question are come in such a way that all topic connected to each other ,i.e. for solve one problem need to concept of different topics.

the cut off of iit is very low in math paper so there is no need solve all the problem ,because for one wrong answer your 1/3 mark of a right answer is reduce . so solve only those problem on which you have confidence .

bast of luck for your upcoming exam.

### MOSFET

A Power MOSFET is a specific type of Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (MOSFET) designed to handle large amounts of power. Compared to the other power semiconductor devices (IGBT, Thyristor...), its main advantages are high commutation speed and good efficiency at low voltages. It shares with the IGBT an isolated gate that makes it easy to drive.

It was made possible by the evolution of the CMOS technology, developed for manufacturing Integrated circuits in the late 1970s. The power MOSFET shares its operating principle with its low-power counterpart, the lateral MOSFET.

The power MOSFET is the most widely used low-voltage (i.e. less than 200 V) switch. It can be found in most power supplies, DC to DC converters, and low voltage motor controllers.

Several structures had been explored at the beginning of the 1980s, when the first Power MOSFETs were introduced. However, most of them have been abandoned (at least until recently) in favour of the Vertical Diffused MOS (VDMOS) structure (also called Double-Diffused MOS or simply DMOS).

The cross section of a VDMOS (see figure 1) shows the "verticality" of the device: It can be seen that the source electrode is placed over the drain, resulting in a current mainly vertical when the transistor is in the on-state. The "diffusion" in VDMOS refers to the manufacturing process: the P wells (see figure 1) are obtained by a diffusion process (actually a double diffusion process to get the P and N+ regions, hence the name double diffused).

Power MOSFETs have a different structure than the lateral MOSFET: as with all power devices, their structure is vertical and not planar. In a planar structure, the current and breakdown voltage ratings are both functions of the channel dimensions (respectively width and length of the channel), resulting in inefficient use of the "silicon estate". With a vertical structure, the voltage rating of the transistor is a function of the doping and thickness of the N epitaxial layer (see cross section), while the current rating is a function of the channel width. This makes possible for the transistor to sustain both high blocking voltage and high current within a compact piece of silicon.

It is worth noting that power MOSFETs with lateral structure exist. They are mainly used in high-end audio amplifiers. Their advantage is a better behaviour in the saturated region (corresponding to the linear region of a bipolar transistor) than the vertical MOSFETs. Vertical MOSFETs are designed for switching applications, so they are only used in On or Off states.

On-state resistance

When the power MOSFET is in the on-state (see MOSFET for a discussion on operation modes), it exhibits a resistive behaviour between the drain and source terminals. It can be seen in figure 2 that this resistance (called RDSon for "drain to source resistance in on-state") is the sum of many elementary contributions:

* RS is the source resistance. It represents all resistances between the source terminal of the package to the channel of the MOSFET: resistance of the wire bonds, of the source metallisation, and of the N+ wells;

* Rch. This is the channel resistance. It is directly proportional to the channel width, and for a given die size, to the channel density. The channel resistance is one of the main contributors to the RDSon of low-voltage MOSFETs, and intensive work has been carried out to reduce their cell size in order to increase the channel density;

* Ra is the access resistance. It represents the resistance of the epitaxial zone directly under the gate electrode, where the direction of the current changes from horizontal (in the channel) to vertical (to the drain contact);

* RJFET is the detrimental effect of the cell size reduction mentioned above: the P implantations (see figure 1) form the gates of a parasitic JFET transistor that tend to reduce the width of the current flow;

* Rn is the resistance of the epitaxial layer. As the role of this layer is to sustain the blocking voltage, Rn is directly related to the voltage rating of the device. A high voltage MOSFET requires a thick, low-doped layer (i.e. highly resistive), whereas a low-voltage transistor only requires a thin layer with a higher doping level (i.e. less resistive). As a result, Rn is the main factor responsible for the resistance of high-voltage MOSFETs;

* RD is the equivalent of RS for the drain. It represents the resistance of the transistor substrate (note that the cross section in figure 1 is not at scale, the bottom N+ layer is actually the thickest) and of the package connections.

Breakdown voltage/on-state resistance trade-off

Fig. 3: The RDSon of the MOSFETs increase with their Voltage rating.

When in the OFF-state, the power MOSFET is equivalent to a PIN diode (constituted by the P + diffusion, the N- epitaxial layer and the N+ substrate). When this highly non-symmetrical structure is reverse-biased, the space-charge region extends principally on the light-doped side, i.e over the N- layer. This means that this layer has to withstand most of the MOSFET's OFF-state drain-to-source voltage.

However, when the MOSFET is in the ON-state, this N- layer has no function. Furthermore, as it is a lightly-doped region, its intrinsic resistivity is non-negligible and adds to the MOSFET's ON-state Drain-to-Source Resistance (RDSon).

Two main parameters govern both the breakdown voltage and the RDSon of the transistor: the doping level and the thickness of the N- epitaxial layer. The thicker the layer and the lower its doping level, the higher the breakdown voltage. On the contrary, the thinner the layer and the higher the doping level, the lower the RDSon (and therefore the lower the conduction losses of the MOSFET). Therefore, it can be seen that there is a trade-off in the design of a MOSFET, between its voltage rating and its ON-state resistance. This is demonstrated by the plot in

Body diode

It can be seen in figure 1 that the source metallization connects both the N+ and P implantations, although the operating principle of the MOSFET only requires the source to be connected to the N+ zone. However, if it were, this would result in a floating P zone between the N-doped source and drain, which is equivalent to a NPN transistor with a non-connected base. Under certain conditions (under high drain current, when the on-state drain to source voltage is in the order of some volts), this parasitic NPN transistor would be triggered, making the MOSFET uncontrollable. The connection of the P implantation to the source metallization shorts the base of the parasitic transistor to its emitter (the source of the MOSFET) and thus prevents spurious latching.

This solution, however, creates a diode between the drain (cathode) and the source (anode) of the MOSFET, making it able to block current in only one direction.

Switching Operation

Location of the intrinsic capacitances of a power MOSFET.

Because of their unipolar nature, the power MOSFET can switch at very high speed. Indeed, there is no need to remove minority carriers as with bipolar devices.

The only intrinsic limitation in commutation speed is due to the internal capacitances of the MOSFET (see figure 4). These capacitances must be charged or discharged when the transistor switches. This can be a relatively slow process because the current that flows through the gate capacitances is limited by the external driver circuit. This circuit will actually dictate the commutation speed of the transistor (assuming the power circuit has sufficiently low inductance).

Capacitances

In the MOSFETs datasheets, the capacitances are often named Ciss (input capacitance, drain and source terminal shorted), Coss (output capacitance, gate and source shorted), and Crss (reverse capacitance, gate and source shorted). The relationship between these capacitances and those described below is:

\begin{matrix} C_{iss} & = & C_{GS}+C_{GD}\\ C_{oss} & = & C_{GD}+C_{DS}\\ C_{rss} & = & C_{GD} \end{matrix}

Where CGS, CGD and CDS are respectively the gate-to-source, gate-to-drain and drain-to-source capacitances (see below). Manufacturers prefer to quote Ciss, Coss and Crss because they can be directly measured on the transistor. However, as CGS, CGD and CDS are closer to the physical meaning, they will be used in the remaining of this article.

[edit] Gate to source capacitance

The CGS capacitance is constituted by the parallel connection of CoxN+, CoxP and Coxm (see figure 4). As the N+ and P regions are highly doped, the two former capacitances can be considered as constant. Coxm is the capacitance between the (polysilicon) gate and the (metal) source electrode, so it is also constant. Therefore, it is common practice to consider CGS as a constant capacitance, i.e its value does not depend on the transistor state.

[edit] Gate to drain capacitance

The CGD capacitance can be seen as the connection in series of two elementary capacitances. The first one is the oxide capacitance (CoxD), constituted by the gate electrode, the silicon dioxide and the top of the N epitaxial layer. It has a constant value. The second capacitance (CCDj) is caused by the extension of the space-charge zone when the MOSFET is in off-state (see the section Blocking Voltage). Therefore, it is dependent upon the drain to source voltage. From this, the value of CGD is:

C_{GD}=\frac{C_{oxD}\times C_{GDj}\left(V_{GD}\right)}{C_{oxD}+ C_{GDj}\left(V_{GD}\right)}

The width of the space-charge region is given by [1]

w_{GDj}=\sqrt{\frac{2\epsilon_{Si}V_{GD}}{qN}}

where εSi is the permittivity of the Silicon, q is the electron charge, and N is the doping level. The value of CGDj can be approximated using the expression of the plane capacitor:

Where AGD is the surface area of the gate-drain overlap. Therefore, it comes:

It can be seen that CGDj (and thus CGD) is a capacitance which value is dependent upon the gate to drain voltage. As this voltage increases, the capacitance decreases. When the MOSFET is in on-state, CGDj is shunted, so the gate to drain capacitance remains equal to CoxD, a constant value.

Drain to source capacitance

As the source metallization overlaps the P-wells (see figure 1), the drain and source terminals are separated by a P-N junction. Therefore, CDS is the junction capacitance. This is a non-linear capacitance, and its value can be calculated using the same equation as for CGDj

Other dynamic elements

Equivalent circuit of a power MOSFET, including the dynamic elements (capacitors, inductors), the parasitic resistors, the body diode.

Packaging inductances

To operate, the MOSFET must be connected to the external circuit, most of the time using wire bonding (although alternative techniques are investigated). These connection exhibit a parasitic inductance, which is in no way specific to the MOSFET technology, but has important effects because of its high commutation speed. Parasitic inductances tend to maintain their current constant and generate overvoltage during the transistor turn off, resulting in increasing commutation losses.

A parasitic inductance can be associated with each terminal of the MOSFET. They have different effects:

* the gate inductance has little influence (assuming it is lower than some hundreds of nanohenrys), because the current gradients on the gate are relatively slow. In some cases, however, the gate inductance and the input capacitance of the transistor can constitute an oscillator. This must be avoided as it results in very high commutation losses (up to the destruction of the device). On a typical design, parasitic inductances are kept low enough to prevent this phenomenon;

* the drain inductance tends to reduce the drain voltage when the MOSFET turns on, so it reduces turn on losses. However, as it creates an overvoltage during turn-off, it increases turn-off losses;

* the source parasitic inductance has the same behaviour as the drain inductance, plus a feedback effect that makes commutation last longer, thus increasing commutation losses.

o at the beginning of a fast turn-on, due to the source inductance, the voltage at the source (on the die) will be able to jump up as well as the gate voltage; the internal VGS voltage will remain low for a longer time, therefore delaying turn-on.

o at the beginning of a fast turn-off, as current through the source inductance decreases sharply, the resulting voltage across it goes negative (with respect to the lead outside the package) raising the internal VGS voltage, keeping the MOSFET on, and therefore delaying turn-off.

Limits of operation

Gate oxide breakdown

The gate oxide is very thin (100 nm or less), so it can only sustain a limited voltage. In the datasheets, manufacturers often state a maximum gate to source voltage, around 20 V, and exceeding this limit can result in destruction of the component. Furthermore, a high gate to source voltage reduces significantly the lifetime of the MOSFET, with little to no advantage on RDSon reduction.

Maximum drain to source voltage

Power MOSFETS have a maximum specified drain to source voltage, beyond which breakdown may occur. Exceeding the breakdown voltage causes the device to turn on, potentially damaging it and other circuit elements due to excessive power dissipation.

Maximum drain current

The drain current must generally stay below a certain specified value (maximum continuous drain current). It can reach higher values for very short durations of time (maximum pulsed drain current, sometimes specified for various pulse durations). The drain current is limited by heating due to resistive losses in internal components such as bond wires, and other phenomena such as electromigration in the metal layer.

Maximum temperature

The junction temperature of the MOSFET must stay under a specified maximum value for the device to function reliably. How high above ambient temperature this is, is given by the power dissipation times thermal resistance. The junction-to-case thermal resistance is intrinsic to the device; the case-to-ambient thermal resistance sss can be lowered as much as practical by using an appropriately sized heatsi Safe operating area

The safe operating area defines the combined ranges of drain current and drain to source voltage the power MOSFET is able to handle without damage. It is represented graphically as an area in the plane defined by these two parameters. Both drain current and drain to source voltage must stay below their respective maximum values, but their product must also stay below the maximum power dissipation the device is able to handle. Thus the device cannot be operated at both its specified maximum drain current and maximum drain to source voltage. [2]

It was made possible by the evolution of the CMOS technology, developed for manufacturing Integrated circuits in the late 1970s. The power MOSFET shares its operating principle with its low-power counterpart, the lateral MOSFET.

The power MOSFET is the most widely used low-voltage (i.e. less than 200 V) switch. It can be found in most power supplies, DC to DC converters, and low voltage motor controllers.

Several structures had been explored at the beginning of the 1980s, when the first Power MOSFETs were introduced. However, most of them have been abandoned (at least until recently) in favour of the Vertical Diffused MOS (VDMOS) structure (also called Double-Diffused MOS or simply DMOS).

The cross section of a VDMOS (see figure 1) shows the "verticality" of the device: It can be seen that the source electrode is placed over the drain, resulting in a current mainly vertical when the transistor is in the on-state. The "diffusion" in VDMOS refers to the manufacturing process: the P wells (see figure 1) are obtained by a diffusion process (actually a double diffusion process to get the P and N+ regions, hence the name double diffused).

Power MOSFETs have a different structure than the lateral MOSFET: as with all power devices, their structure is vertical and not planar. In a planar structure, the current and breakdown voltage ratings are both functions of the channel dimensions (respectively width and length of the channel), resulting in inefficient use of the "silicon estate". With a vertical structure, the voltage rating of the transistor is a function of the doping and thickness of the N epitaxial layer (see cross section), while the current rating is a function of the channel width. This makes possible for the transistor to sustain both high blocking voltage and high current within a compact piece of silicon.

It is worth noting that power MOSFETs with lateral structure exist. They are mainly used in high-end audio amplifiers. Their advantage is a better behaviour in the saturated region (corresponding to the linear region of a bipolar transistor) than the vertical MOSFETs. Vertical MOSFETs are designed for switching applications, so they are only used in On or Off states.

On-state resistance

When the power MOSFET is in the on-state (see MOSFET for a discussion on operation modes), it exhibits a resistive behaviour between the drain and source terminals. It can be seen in figure 2 that this resistance (called RDSon for "drain to source resistance in on-state") is the sum of many elementary contributions:

* RS is the source resistance. It represents all resistances between the source terminal of the package to the channel of the MOSFET: resistance of the wire bonds, of the source metallisation, and of the N+ wells;

* Rch. This is the channel resistance. It is directly proportional to the channel width, and for a given die size, to the channel density. The channel resistance is one of the main contributors to the RDSon of low-voltage MOSFETs, and intensive work has been carried out to reduce their cell size in order to increase the channel density;

* Ra is the access resistance. It represents the resistance of the epitaxial zone directly under the gate electrode, where the direction of the current changes from horizontal (in the channel) to vertical (to the drain contact);

* RJFET is the detrimental effect of the cell size reduction mentioned above: the P implantations (see figure 1) form the gates of a parasitic JFET transistor that tend to reduce the width of the current flow;

* Rn is the resistance of the epitaxial layer. As the role of this layer is to sustain the blocking voltage, Rn is directly related to the voltage rating of the device. A high voltage MOSFET requires a thick, low-doped layer (i.e. highly resistive), whereas a low-voltage transistor only requires a thin layer with a higher doping level (i.e. less resistive). As a result, Rn is the main factor responsible for the resistance of high-voltage MOSFETs;

* RD is the equivalent of RS for the drain. It represents the resistance of the transistor substrate (note that the cross section in figure 1 is not at scale, the bottom N+ layer is actually the thickest) and of the package connections.

Breakdown voltage/on-state resistance trade-off

Fig. 3: The RDSon of the MOSFETs increase with their Voltage rating.

When in the OFF-state, the power MOSFET is equivalent to a PIN diode (constituted by the P + diffusion, the N- epitaxial layer and the N+ substrate). When this highly non-symmetrical structure is reverse-biased, the space-charge region extends principally on the light-doped side, i.e over the N- layer. This means that this layer has to withstand most of the MOSFET's OFF-state drain-to-source voltage.

However, when the MOSFET is in the ON-state, this N- layer has no function. Furthermore, as it is a lightly-doped region, its intrinsic resistivity is non-negligible and adds to the MOSFET's ON-state Drain-to-Source Resistance (RDSon).

Two main parameters govern both the breakdown voltage and the RDSon of the transistor: the doping level and the thickness of the N- epitaxial layer. The thicker the layer and the lower its doping level, the higher the breakdown voltage. On the contrary, the thinner the layer and the higher the doping level, the lower the RDSon (and therefore the lower the conduction losses of the MOSFET). Therefore, it can be seen that there is a trade-off in the design of a MOSFET, between its voltage rating and its ON-state resistance. This is demonstrated by the plot in

Body diode

It can be seen in figure 1 that the source metallization connects both the N+ and P implantations, although the operating principle of the MOSFET only requires the source to be connected to the N+ zone. However, if it were, this would result in a floating P zone between the N-doped source and drain, which is equivalent to a NPN transistor with a non-connected base. Under certain conditions (under high drain current, when the on-state drain to source voltage is in the order of some volts), this parasitic NPN transistor would be triggered, making the MOSFET uncontrollable. The connection of the P implantation to the source metallization shorts the base of the parasitic transistor to its emitter (the source of the MOSFET) and thus prevents spurious latching.

This solution, however, creates a diode between the drain (cathode) and the source (anode) of the MOSFET, making it able to block current in only one direction.

Switching Operation

Location of the intrinsic capacitances of a power MOSFET.

Because of their unipolar nature, the power MOSFET can switch at very high speed. Indeed, there is no need to remove minority carriers as with bipolar devices.

The only intrinsic limitation in commutation speed is due to the internal capacitances of the MOSFET (see figure 4). These capacitances must be charged or discharged when the transistor switches. This can be a relatively slow process because the current that flows through the gate capacitances is limited by the external driver circuit. This circuit will actually dictate the commutation speed of the transistor (assuming the power circuit has sufficiently low inductance).

Capacitances

In the MOSFETs datasheets, the capacitances are often named Ciss (input capacitance, drain and source terminal shorted), Coss (output capacitance, gate and source shorted), and Crss (reverse capacitance, gate and source shorted). The relationship between these capacitances and those described below is:

\begin{matrix} C_{iss} & = & C_{GS}+C_{GD}\\ C_{oss} & = & C_{GD}+C_{DS}\\ C_{rss} & = & C_{GD} \end{matrix}

Where CGS, CGD and CDS are respectively the gate-to-source, gate-to-drain and drain-to-source capacitances (see below). Manufacturers prefer to quote Ciss, Coss and Crss because they can be directly measured on the transistor. However, as CGS, CGD and CDS are closer to the physical meaning, they will be used in the remaining of this article.

[edit] Gate to source capacitance

The CGS capacitance is constituted by the parallel connection of CoxN+, CoxP and Coxm (see figure 4). As the N+ and P regions are highly doped, the two former capacitances can be considered as constant. Coxm is the capacitance between the (polysilicon) gate and the (metal) source electrode, so it is also constant. Therefore, it is common practice to consider CGS as a constant capacitance, i.e its value does not depend on the transistor state.

[edit] Gate to drain capacitance

The CGD capacitance can be seen as the connection in series of two elementary capacitances. The first one is the oxide capacitance (CoxD), constituted by the gate electrode, the silicon dioxide and the top of the N epitaxial layer. It has a constant value. The second capacitance (CCDj) is caused by the extension of the space-charge zone when the MOSFET is in off-state (see the section Blocking Voltage). Therefore, it is dependent upon the drain to source voltage. From this, the value of CGD is:

C_{GD}=\frac{C_{oxD}\times C_{GDj}\left(V_{GD}\right)}{C_{oxD}+ C_{GDj}\left(V_{GD}\right)}

The width of the space-charge region is given by [1]

w_{GDj}=\sqrt{\frac{2\epsilon_{Si}V_{GD}}{qN}}

where εSi is the permittivity of the Silicon, q is the electron charge, and N is the doping level. The value of CGDj can be approximated using the expression of the plane capacitor:

Where AGD is the surface area of the gate-drain overlap. Therefore, it comes:

It can be seen that CGDj (and thus CGD) is a capacitance which value is dependent upon the gate to drain voltage. As this voltage increases, the capacitance decreases. When the MOSFET is in on-state, CGDj is shunted, so the gate to drain capacitance remains equal to CoxD, a constant value.

Drain to source capacitance

As the source metallization overlaps the P-wells (see figure 1), the drain and source terminals are separated by a P-N junction. Therefore, CDS is the junction capacitance. This is a non-linear capacitance, and its value can be calculated using the same equation as for CGDj

Other dynamic elements

Equivalent circuit of a power MOSFET, including the dynamic elements (capacitors, inductors), the parasitic resistors, the body diode.

Packaging inductances

To operate, the MOSFET must be connected to the external circuit, most of the time using wire bonding (although alternative techniques are investigated). These connection exhibit a parasitic inductance, which is in no way specific to the MOSFET technology, but has important effects because of its high commutation speed. Parasitic inductances tend to maintain their current constant and generate overvoltage during the transistor turn off, resulting in increasing commutation losses.

A parasitic inductance can be associated with each terminal of the MOSFET. They have different effects:

* the gate inductance has little influence (assuming it is lower than some hundreds of nanohenrys), because the current gradients on the gate are relatively slow. In some cases, however, the gate inductance and the input capacitance of the transistor can constitute an oscillator. This must be avoided as it results in very high commutation losses (up to the destruction of the device). On a typical design, parasitic inductances are kept low enough to prevent this phenomenon;

* the drain inductance tends to reduce the drain voltage when the MOSFET turns on, so it reduces turn on losses. However, as it creates an overvoltage during turn-off, it increases turn-off losses;

* the source parasitic inductance has the same behaviour as the drain inductance, plus a feedback effect that makes commutation last longer, thus increasing commutation losses.

o at the beginning of a fast turn-on, due to the source inductance, the voltage at the source (on the die) will be able to jump up as well as the gate voltage; the internal VGS voltage will remain low for a longer time, therefore delaying turn-on.

o at the beginning of a fast turn-off, as current through the source inductance decreases sharply, the resulting voltage across it goes negative (with respect to the lead outside the package) raising the internal VGS voltage, keeping the MOSFET on, and therefore delaying turn-off.

Limits of operation

Gate oxide breakdown

The gate oxide is very thin (100 nm or less), so it can only sustain a limited voltage. In the datasheets, manufacturers often state a maximum gate to source voltage, around 20 V, and exceeding this limit can result in destruction of the component. Furthermore, a high gate to source voltage reduces significantly the lifetime of the MOSFET, with little to no advantage on RDSon reduction.

Maximum drain to source voltage

Power MOSFETS have a maximum specified drain to source voltage, beyond which breakdown may occur. Exceeding the breakdown voltage causes the device to turn on, potentially damaging it and other circuit elements due to excessive power dissipation.

Maximum drain current

The drain current must generally stay below a certain specified value (maximum continuous drain current). It can reach higher values for very short durations of time (maximum pulsed drain current, sometimes specified for various pulse durations). The drain current is limited by heating due to resistive losses in internal components such as bond wires, and other phenomena such as electromigration in the metal layer.

Maximum temperature

The junction temperature of the MOSFET must stay under a specified maximum value for the device to function reliably. How high above ambient temperature this is, is given by the power dissipation times thermal resistance. The junction-to-case thermal resistance is intrinsic to the device; the case-to-ambient thermal resistance sss can be lowered as much as practical by using an appropriately sized heatsi Safe operating area

The safe operating area defines the combined ranges of drain current and drain to source voltage the power MOSFET is able to handle without damage. It is represented graphically as an area in the plane defined by these two parameters. Both drain current and drain to source voltage must stay below their respective maximum values, but their product must also stay below the maximum power dissipation the device is able to handle. Thus the device cannot be operated at both its specified maximum drain current and maximum drain to source voltage. [2]

Labels:
B.tech

## Friday, May 8, 2009

## Thursday, May 7, 2009

### gate syllabus of electronic &communication

GATE Syllabus for Electronics and Communication Engineering - EC

ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS

Linear Algebra: Matrix Algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors.

Calculus: Mean value theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, Multiple integrals, Fourier series. Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green's theorems.

Differential equations: First order equation (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Method of variation of parameters, Cauchy's and Euler's equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Partial Differential Equations and variable separable method.

Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy's integral theorem and integral formula, Taylor's and Laurent' series, Residue theorem, solution integrals.

Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Discrete and continuous distributions, Poisson, Normal and Binomial distribution, Correlation and regression analysis.

Numerical Methods: Solutions of non-linear algebraic equations, single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

Transform Theory: Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform.

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Networks: Network graphs: matrices associated with graphs; incidence, fundamental cut set and fundamental circuit matrices. Solution methods: nodal and mesh analysis. Network theorems: superposition, Thevenin and Norton's maximum power transfer, Wye-Delta transformation. Steady state sinusoidal analysis using phasors. Linear constant coefficient differential equations; time domain analysis of simple RLC circuits, Solution of network equations using Laplace transform: frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits. 2-port network parameters: driving point and transfer functions. State equations for networks.

Electronic Devices: Energy bands in silicon, intrinsic and extrinsic silicon. Carrier transport in silicon: diffusion current, drift current, mobility, and resistivity. Generation and recombination of carriers. p-n junction diode, Zener diode, tunnel diode, BJT, JFET, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, p-I-n and avalanche photo diode, Basics of LASERs. Device technology: integrated circuits fabrication process, oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography, n-tub, p-tub and twin-tub CMOS process.

Analog Circuits: Small Signal Equivalent circuits of diodes, BJTs, MOSFETs and analog CMOS. Simple diode circuits, clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability of transistor and FET amplifiers. Amplifiers: single-and multi-stage, differential and operational, feedback, and power. Frequency response of amplifiers. Simple op-amp circuits. Filters. Sinusoidal oscillators; criterion for oscillation; single-transistor and op-amp configurations. Function generators and wave-shaping circuits, 555 Timers. Power supplies.

Digital circuits: Boolean algebra, minimization of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinatorial circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders, PROMs and PLAs. Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs, DACs. Semiconductor memories. Microprocessor(8085): architecture, programming, memory and I/O interfacing.

Signals and Systems: Definitions and properties of Laplace transform, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier series, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier Transform, DFT and FFT, z-transform. Sampling theorem. Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) Systems: definitions and properties; causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros, parallel and cascade structure, frequency response, group delay, phase delay. Signal transmission through LTI systems.

Control Systems: Basic control system components; block diagrammatic description, reduction of block diagrams. Open loop and closed loop (feedback) systems and stability analysis of these systems. Signal flow graphs and their use in determining transfer functions of systems; transient and steady state analysis of LTI control systems and frequency response. Tools and techniques for LTI control system analysis: root loci, Routh-Hurwitz criterion, Bode and Nyquist plots. Control system compensators: elements of lead and lag compensation, elements of Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control. State variable representation and solution of state equation of LTI control systems.

Communications: Random signals and noise: probability, random variables, probability density function, autocorrelation, power spectral density. Analog communication systems: amplitude and angle modulation and demodulation systems, spectral analysis of these operations, superheterodyne receivers; elements of hardware, realizations of analog communication systems; signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) calculations for amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) for low noise conditions. Fundamentals of information theory and channel capacity theorem. Digital communication systems: pulse code modulation (PCM), differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), digital modulation schemes: amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK), matched filter receivers, bandwidth consideration and probability of error calculations for these schemes. Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA and GSM.

Electromagnetics: Elements of vector calculus: divergence and curl; Gauss and Stokes theorems, Maxwell's equations: differential and integral forms. Wave equation, Poynting vector. Plane waves: propagation through various media; reflection and refraction; phase and group velocity; skin depth. Transmission lines: characteristic impedance; impedance transformation; Smith chart; impedance matching; S parameters, pulse excitation. Waveguides: modes in rectangular waveguides; boundary conditions; cut-off frequencies; dispersion relations. Basics of propagation in dielectric waveguide and optical fibers. Basics of Antennas: Dipole antennas; radiation pattern; antenna gain.

ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS

Linear Algebra: Matrix Algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors.

Calculus: Mean value theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, Multiple integrals, Fourier series. Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green's theorems.

Differential equations: First order equation (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Method of variation of parameters, Cauchy's and Euler's equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Partial Differential Equations and variable separable method.

Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy's integral theorem and integral formula, Taylor's and Laurent' series, Residue theorem, solution integrals.

Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Discrete and continuous distributions, Poisson, Normal and Binomial distribution, Correlation and regression analysis.

Numerical Methods: Solutions of non-linear algebraic equations, single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

Transform Theory: Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform.

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Networks: Network graphs: matrices associated with graphs; incidence, fundamental cut set and fundamental circuit matrices. Solution methods: nodal and mesh analysis. Network theorems: superposition, Thevenin and Norton's maximum power transfer, Wye-Delta transformation. Steady state sinusoidal analysis using phasors. Linear constant coefficient differential equations; time domain analysis of simple RLC circuits, Solution of network equations using Laplace transform: frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits. 2-port network parameters: driving point and transfer functions. State equations for networks.

Electronic Devices: Energy bands in silicon, intrinsic and extrinsic silicon. Carrier transport in silicon: diffusion current, drift current, mobility, and resistivity. Generation and recombination of carriers. p-n junction diode, Zener diode, tunnel diode, BJT, JFET, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, p-I-n and avalanche photo diode, Basics of LASERs. Device technology: integrated circuits fabrication process, oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography, n-tub, p-tub and twin-tub CMOS process.

Analog Circuits: Small Signal Equivalent circuits of diodes, BJTs, MOSFETs and analog CMOS. Simple diode circuits, clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability of transistor and FET amplifiers. Amplifiers: single-and multi-stage, differential and operational, feedback, and power. Frequency response of amplifiers. Simple op-amp circuits. Filters. Sinusoidal oscillators; criterion for oscillation; single-transistor and op-amp configurations. Function generators and wave-shaping circuits, 555 Timers. Power supplies.

Digital circuits: Boolean algebra, minimization of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinatorial circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders, PROMs and PLAs. Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs, DACs. Semiconductor memories. Microprocessor(8085): architecture, programming, memory and I/O interfacing.

Signals and Systems: Definitions and properties of Laplace transform, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier series, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier Transform, DFT and FFT, z-transform. Sampling theorem. Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) Systems: definitions and properties; causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros, parallel and cascade structure, frequency response, group delay, phase delay. Signal transmission through LTI systems.

Control Systems: Basic control system components; block diagrammatic description, reduction of block diagrams. Open loop and closed loop (feedback) systems and stability analysis of these systems. Signal flow graphs and their use in determining transfer functions of systems; transient and steady state analysis of LTI control systems and frequency response. Tools and techniques for LTI control system analysis: root loci, Routh-Hurwitz criterion, Bode and Nyquist plots. Control system compensators: elements of lead and lag compensation, elements of Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control. State variable representation and solution of state equation of LTI control systems.

Communications: Random signals and noise: probability, random variables, probability density function, autocorrelation, power spectral density. Analog communication systems: amplitude and angle modulation and demodulation systems, spectral analysis of these operations, superheterodyne receivers; elements of hardware, realizations of analog communication systems; signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) calculations for amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) for low noise conditions. Fundamentals of information theory and channel capacity theorem. Digital communication systems: pulse code modulation (PCM), differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), digital modulation schemes: amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK), matched filter receivers, bandwidth consideration and probability of error calculations for these schemes. Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA and GSM.

Electromagnetics: Elements of vector calculus: divergence and curl; Gauss and Stokes theorems, Maxwell's equations: differential and integral forms. Wave equation, Poynting vector. Plane waves: propagation through various media; reflection and refraction; phase and group velocity; skin depth. Transmission lines: characteristic impedance; impedance transformation; Smith chart; impedance matching; S parameters, pulse excitation. Waveguides: modes in rectangular waveguides; boundary conditions; cut-off frequencies; dispersion relations. Basics of propagation in dielectric waveguide and optical fibers. Basics of Antennas: Dipole antennas; radiation pattern; antenna gain.

Labels:
GATE

## Wednesday, May 6, 2009

### book for iit jee

Books For IIT

I suggest following books for IIT JEE preparation:

Physics

MECHANICS

Physics by H.C. Verma

Problems in physics by I.E. Irodov

Resnick and Halliday

ELECRICITY AND MAGNETISM

Resnick and Halliday

Circuits devices and systems by R.J. Smith

Problems in physics by I.E. Irodov

OPTICS

Physics by H.C. Verma

MODERN PHYSICS

Physics by H.C. Verma

Problems in Physics by I.E. Irodov

HEAT AND WAVES

Physics by H.C. Verma

Resnick and Halliday

Chemistry

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Morrison & Boyd

Solutions to Morrison Boyd

Reaction mechanism in Organic Chemistry by Parmar ∓ Chawla

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

NCERT Inorganic Chemistry

Concise Inorganic Chemistry by J.D. Lee

IIT Chemistry by O.P. Aggarwal

GENERAL CHEMISTRY

J.D. Lee

O.P. Aggarwal

R.C.Mukerjee

physical and inorganic chemistry by O.P.tandan

For numerical problem R.C.mukharjee

Maths

ALGEBRA

High school mathematics by Hall and Knight

IIT Maths by M.L. Khanna

CALCULUS and; ANALYTIC GEOMETRY

G.N.Berman

Calculus and analytic geometry by Thomas and Finney

Coordinate geometry by Loney

IIT Maths by M.L. Khanna

I.A.Maron

VECTORS

IIT Maths by M.L. Khanna

plane trigonomatic by Loney

All book of arihant pablication

I suggest following books for IIT JEE preparation:

Physics

MECHANICS

Physics by H.C. Verma

Problems in physics by I.E. Irodov

Resnick and Halliday

ELECRICITY AND MAGNETISM

Resnick and Halliday

Circuits devices and systems by R.J. Smith

Problems in physics by I.E. Irodov

OPTICS

Physics by H.C. Verma

MODERN PHYSICS

Physics by H.C. Verma

Problems in Physics by I.E. Irodov

HEAT AND WAVES

Physics by H.C. Verma

Resnick and Halliday

Chemistry

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Morrison & Boyd

Solutions to Morrison Boyd

Reaction mechanism in Organic Chemistry by Parmar ∓ Chawla

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

NCERT Inorganic Chemistry

Concise Inorganic Chemistry by J.D. Lee

IIT Chemistry by O.P. Aggarwal

GENERAL CHEMISTRY

J.D. Lee

O.P. Aggarwal

R.C.Mukerjee

physical and inorganic chemistry by O.P.tandan

For numerical problem R.C.mukharjee

Maths

ALGEBRA

High school mathematics by Hall and Knight

IIT Maths by M.L. Khanna

CALCULUS and; ANALYTIC GEOMETRY

G.N.Berman

Calculus and analytic geometry by Thomas and Finney

Coordinate geometry by Loney

IIT Maths by M.L. Khanna

I.A.Maron

VECTORS

IIT Maths by M.L. Khanna

plane trigonomatic by Loney

All book of arihant pablication

Labels:
IIT

### Eligibility criteria for IIT

Eligibility Criteria

Minimum Academic Qualification

The minimum academic qualification for admission through JEE is a pass grade in the final examination of 10+2 system or its equivalent, referred to as the Qualifying Examination in this brochure. In case the relevant qualifying examination is not a public examination, the candidate must have passed at least one public (Board or Pre-University) examination at an earlier level. Those appearing in 10+2 final or equivalent examination in 2005 may also appear in JEE-2005 (Screening Test and Main Examination) for consideration of provisional admission. Those who will be appearing in the qualifying examination in 2006 or later are not eligible to apply. All provisional admissions will stand cancelled if the proof of having passed the qualifying examination (10+2 or its equivalent) is not submitted to the Institute concerned by September 30, 2005.

All admissions will be subject to verification of facts from the original certificates/documents of the candidates. If an applicant is found ineligible at a later date even after admission to an Institute, his/her admission will be cancelled. The decision of the Joint Admissions Board regarding the eligibility of any applicant shall be final.

The list of qualifying examinations is given below:

The final examination of the 10+2 system, conducted by any recognized Central/State Board, such as Central Board of Secondary Education, New Delhi; Council for Indian School Certificate Examination, New Delhi; etc.

Intermediate or two-year Pre-University Examination conducted by a recognized Board/ University.

Final Examination of the two-year course of the Joint Services Wing of the National Defence Academy.

General Certificate Education (GCE) Examination (London/Cambridge/Sri Lanka) at the Advanced (A) level.

High School Certificate Examination of the Cambridge University.

Any Public School/Board/University Examination in India or in foreign countries recognized by the Association of Indian Universities as equivalent to 10+2 system.

H.S.C. Vocational Examination.

Senior Secondary School Examination conducted by the National Open School with a minimum of five subjects.

3 or 4-year Diploma recognized by AICTE or a State Board of Technical Education.

Date of Birth

Only those candidates whose date of birth falls on or after October 01, 1980 are eligible for JEE-2005. However, in the case of SC, ST and PD candidates, upper age limit is relaxed by 5 years, i.e., SC, ST and PD candidates who were born on or after October 01, 1975 are eligible. Only the date of birth as recorded in your High School/first Board/Pre-University Certificate will be taken as authentic. Candidates must produce this certificate in original as a proof of their age at the time of counselling, failing which they will be disqualified.

Physical Fitness

All qualified candidates will have to submit a Physical Fitness certificate from a Registered Medical Practitioner in a prescribed format that will be made available to them at an appropriate time. They will be admitted only if they are physically fit for pursuing a course of study at the participating Institutes.

Special Requirements for Mining Engineering and Mining Machinery Courses

Candidates opting for these courses should make sure that they are free from colour blindness. They will be required to submit a certificate from a Registered Medical Practitioner to this effect at the time of counselling. The standard of visual acuity with or without glasses will be adhered strictly for candidates seeking admission in Mining as per DGMS Circular 14 of 1972. Persons with one-eyed vision are not permitted to work underground. Candidates with above limitations are not allowed to opt for admission to Mining Engineering or Mining Machinery Engineering.

Women Candidates for Mining Courses

Section 46(1) of the Mines Act, 1952 states that ''No woman shall, notwithstanding anything contained in any other law, be employed (a) in any part of a mine which is below ground, (b) in any mine above ground except between the hours 6 a.m. and 7 p.m.''. The programmes of Mining Engineering and Mining Machinery at ISM Dhanbad do not admit women candidates, whereas, IIT Kharagpur and IT-BHU Varanasi have no such restriction.

Eligibility to Appear in the Main Examination

Candidates who qualify in the Screening Test of JEE-2005 shall be allowed to appear in the Main Examination

Minimum Academic Qualification

The minimum academic qualification for admission through JEE is a pass grade in the final examination of 10+2 system or its equivalent, referred to as the Qualifying Examination in this brochure. In case the relevant qualifying examination is not a public examination, the candidate must have passed at least one public (Board or Pre-University) examination at an earlier level. Those appearing in 10+2 final or equivalent examination in 2005 may also appear in JEE-2005 (Screening Test and Main Examination) for consideration of provisional admission. Those who will be appearing in the qualifying examination in 2006 or later are not eligible to apply. All provisional admissions will stand cancelled if the proof of having passed the qualifying examination (10+2 or its equivalent) is not submitted to the Institute concerned by September 30, 2005.

All admissions will be subject to verification of facts from the original certificates/documents of the candidates. If an applicant is found ineligible at a later date even after admission to an Institute, his/her admission will be cancelled. The decision of the Joint Admissions Board regarding the eligibility of any applicant shall be final.

The list of qualifying examinations is given below:

The final examination of the 10+2 system, conducted by any recognized Central/State Board, such as Central Board of Secondary Education, New Delhi; Council for Indian School Certificate Examination, New Delhi; etc.

Intermediate or two-year Pre-University Examination conducted by a recognized Board/ University.

Final Examination of the two-year course of the Joint Services Wing of the National Defence Academy.

General Certificate Education (GCE) Examination (London/Cambridge/Sri Lanka) at the Advanced (A) level.

High School Certificate Examination of the Cambridge University.

Any Public School/Board/University Examination in India or in foreign countries recognized by the Association of Indian Universities as equivalent to 10+2 system.

H.S.C. Vocational Examination.

Senior Secondary School Examination conducted by the National Open School with a minimum of five subjects.

3 or 4-year Diploma recognized by AICTE or a State Board of Technical Education.

Date of Birth

Only those candidates whose date of birth falls on or after October 01, 1980 are eligible for JEE-2005. However, in the case of SC, ST and PD candidates, upper age limit is relaxed by 5 years, i.e., SC, ST and PD candidates who were born on or after October 01, 1975 are eligible. Only the date of birth as recorded in your High School/first Board/Pre-University Certificate will be taken as authentic. Candidates must produce this certificate in original as a proof of their age at the time of counselling, failing which they will be disqualified.

Physical Fitness

All qualified candidates will have to submit a Physical Fitness certificate from a Registered Medical Practitioner in a prescribed format that will be made available to them at an appropriate time. They will be admitted only if they are physically fit for pursuing a course of study at the participating Institutes.

Special Requirements for Mining Engineering and Mining Machinery Courses

Candidates opting for these courses should make sure that they are free from colour blindness. They will be required to submit a certificate from a Registered Medical Practitioner to this effect at the time of counselling. The standard of visual acuity with or without glasses will be adhered strictly for candidates seeking admission in Mining as per DGMS Circular 14 of 1972. Persons with one-eyed vision are not permitted to work underground. Candidates with above limitations are not allowed to opt for admission to Mining Engineering or Mining Machinery Engineering.

Women Candidates for Mining Courses

Section 46(1) of the Mines Act, 1952 states that ''No woman shall, notwithstanding anything contained in any other law, be employed (a) in any part of a mine which is below ground, (b) in any mine above ground except between the hours 6 a.m. and 7 p.m.''. The programmes of Mining Engineering and Mining Machinery at ISM Dhanbad do not admit women candidates, whereas, IIT Kharagpur and IT-BHU Varanasi have no such restriction.

Eligibility to Appear in the Main Examination

Candidates who qualify in the Screening Test of JEE-2005 shall be allowed to appear in the Main Examination

Labels:
IIT

### Eligibility criteria for IIT

Eligibility Criteria

Minimum Academic Qualification

The minimum academic qualification for admission through JEE is a pass grade in the final examination of 10+2 system or its equivalent, referred to as the Qualifying Examination in this brochure. In case the relevant qualifying examination is not a public examination, the candidate must have passed at least one public (Board or Pre-University) examination at an earlier level. Those appearing in 10+2 final or equivalent examination in 2005 may also appear in JEE-2005 (Screening Test and Main Examination) for consideration of provisional admission. Those who will be appearing in the qualifying examination in 2006 or later are not eligible to apply. All provisional admissions will stand cancelled if the proof of having passed the qualifying examination (10+2 or its equivalent) is not submitted to the Institute concerned by September 30, 2005.

All admissions will be subject to verification of facts from the original certificates/documents of the candidates. If an applicant is found ineligible at a later date even after admission to an Institute, his/her admission will be cancelled. The decision of the Joint Admissions Board regarding the eligibility of any applicant shall be final.

The list of qualifying examinations is given below:

The final examination of the 10+2 system, conducted by any recognized Central/State Board, such as Central Board of Secondary Education, New Delhi; Council for Indian School Certificate Examination, New Delhi; etc.

Intermediate or two-year Pre-University Examination conducted by a recognized Board/ University.

Final Examination of the two-year course of the Joint Services Wing of the National Defence Academy.

General Certificate Education (GCE) Examination (London/Cambridge/Sri Lanka) at the Advanced (A) level.

High School Certificate Examination of the Cambridge University.

Any Public School/Board/University Examination in India or in foreign countries recognized by the Association of Indian Universities as equivalent to 10+2 system.

H.S.C. Vocational Examination.

Senior Secondary School Examination conducted by the National Open School with a minimum of five subjects.

3 or 4-year Diploma recognized by AICTE or a State Board of Technical Education.

Date of Birth

Only those candidates whose date of birth falls on or after October 01, 1980 are eligible for JEE-2005. However, in the case of SC, ST and PD candidates, upper age limit is relaxed by 5 years, i.e., SC, ST and PD candidates who were born on or after October 01, 1975 are eligible. Only the date of birth as recorded in your High School/first Board/Pre-University Certificate will be taken as authentic. Candidates must produce this certificate in original as a proof of their age at the time of counselling, failing which they will be disqualified.

Physical Fitness

All qualified candidates will have to submit a Physical Fitness certificate from a Registered Medical Practitioner in a prescribed format that will be made available to them at an appropriate time. They will be admitted only if they are physically fit for pursuing a course of study at the participating Institutes.

Special Requirements for Mining Engineering and Mining Machinery Courses

Candidates opting for these courses should make sure that they are free from colour blindness. They will be required to submit a certificate from a Registered Medical Practitioner to this effect at the time of counselling. The standard of visual acuity with or without glasses will be adhered strictly for candidates seeking admission in Mining as per DGMS Circular 14 of 1972. Persons with one-eyed vision are not permitted to work underground. Candidates with above limitations are not allowed to opt for admission to Mining Engineering or Mining Machinery Engineering.

Women Candidates for Mining Courses

Section 46(1) of the Mines Act, 1952 states that ''No woman shall, notwithstanding anything contained in any other law, be employed (a) in any part of a mine which is below ground, (b) in any mine above ground except between the hours 6 a.m. and 7 p.m.''. The programmes of Mining Engineering and Mining Machinery at ISM Dhanbad do not admit women candidates, whereas, IIT Kharagpur and IT-BHU Varanasi have no such restriction.

Eligibility to Appear in the Main Examination

Candidates who qualify in the Screening Test of JEE-2005 shall be allowed to appear in the Main Examination

Minimum Academic Qualification

The minimum academic qualification for admission through JEE is a pass grade in the final examination of 10+2 system or its equivalent, referred to as the Qualifying Examination in this brochure. In case the relevant qualifying examination is not a public examination, the candidate must have passed at least one public (Board or Pre-University) examination at an earlier level. Those appearing in 10+2 final or equivalent examination in 2005 may also appear in JEE-2005 (Screening Test and Main Examination) for consideration of provisional admission. Those who will be appearing in the qualifying examination in 2006 or later are not eligible to apply. All provisional admissions will stand cancelled if the proof of having passed the qualifying examination (10+2 or its equivalent) is not submitted to the Institute concerned by September 30, 2005.

All admissions will be subject to verification of facts from the original certificates/documents of the candidates. If an applicant is found ineligible at a later date even after admission to an Institute, his/her admission will be cancelled. The decision of the Joint Admissions Board regarding the eligibility of any applicant shall be final.

The list of qualifying examinations is given below:

The final examination of the 10+2 system, conducted by any recognized Central/State Board, such as Central Board of Secondary Education, New Delhi; Council for Indian School Certificate Examination, New Delhi; etc.

Intermediate or two-year Pre-University Examination conducted by a recognized Board/ University.

Final Examination of the two-year course of the Joint Services Wing of the National Defence Academy.

General Certificate Education (GCE) Examination (London/Cambridge/Sri Lanka) at the Advanced (A) level.

High School Certificate Examination of the Cambridge University.

Any Public School/Board/University Examination in India or in foreign countries recognized by the Association of Indian Universities as equivalent to 10+2 system.

H.S.C. Vocational Examination.

Senior Secondary School Examination conducted by the National Open School with a minimum of five subjects.

3 or 4-year Diploma recognized by AICTE or a State Board of Technical Education.

Date of Birth

Only those candidates whose date of birth falls on or after October 01, 1980 are eligible for JEE-2005. However, in the case of SC, ST and PD candidates, upper age limit is relaxed by 5 years, i.e., SC, ST and PD candidates who were born on or after October 01, 1975 are eligible. Only the date of birth as recorded in your High School/first Board/Pre-University Certificate will be taken as authentic. Candidates must produce this certificate in original as a proof of their age at the time of counselling, failing which they will be disqualified.

Physical Fitness

All qualified candidates will have to submit a Physical Fitness certificate from a Registered Medical Practitioner in a prescribed format that will be made available to them at an appropriate time. They will be admitted only if they are physically fit for pursuing a course of study at the participating Institutes.

Special Requirements for Mining Engineering and Mining Machinery Courses

Candidates opting for these courses should make sure that they are free from colour blindness. They will be required to submit a certificate from a Registered Medical Practitioner to this effect at the time of counselling. The standard of visual acuity with or without glasses will be adhered strictly for candidates seeking admission in Mining as per DGMS Circular 14 of 1972. Persons with one-eyed vision are not permitted to work underground. Candidates with above limitations are not allowed to opt for admission to Mining Engineering or Mining Machinery Engineering.

Women Candidates for Mining Courses

Section 46(1) of the Mines Act, 1952 states that ''No woman shall, notwithstanding anything contained in any other law, be employed (a) in any part of a mine which is below ground, (b) in any mine above ground except between the hours 6 a.m. and 7 p.m.''. The programmes of Mining Engineering and Mining Machinery at ISM Dhanbad do not admit women candidates, whereas, IIT Kharagpur and IT-BHU Varanasi have no such restriction.

Eligibility to Appear in the Main Examination

Candidates who qualify in the Screening Test of JEE-2005 shall be allowed to appear in the Main Examination

Labels:
IIT

### IIT mathematics syllabus

IIT JEE 2009 - Mathematics Syllabus

Algebra: Algebra of complex numbers, addition, multiplication, conjugation, polar representation, properties of modulus and principal argument, triangle inequality, cube roots of unity, geometric interpretations.

Quadratic equations with real coefficients, relations between roots and coefficients, formation of quadratic equations with given roots, symmetric functions of roots.

Arithmetic, geometric and harmonic progressions, arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means, sums of finite arithmetic and geometric progressions, infinite geometric series, sums of squares and cubes of the first n natural numbers.

Logarithms and their properties.

Permutations and combinations, Binomial theorem for a positive integral index, properties of binomial coefficients.

Matrices as a rectangular array of real numbers, equality of matrices, addition, multiplication by a scalar and product of matrices, transpose of a matrix, determinant of a square matrix of order up to three, inverse of a square matrix of order up to three, properties of these matrix operations, diagonal, symmetric and skew-symmetric matrices and their properties, solutions of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables.

Addition and multiplication rules of probability, conditional probability, Bayes Theorem, independence of events, computation of probability of events using permutations and combinations.

Trigonometry: Trigonometric functions, their periodicity and graphs, addition and subtraction formulae, formulae involving multiple and sub-multiple angles, general solution of trigonometric equations.

Relations between sides and angles of a triangle, sine rule, cosine rule, half-angle formula and the area of a triangle, inverse trigonometric functions (principal value only).

Analytical geometry:

Two dimensions: Cartesian coordinates, distance between two points, section formulae, shift of origin.

Equation of a straight line in various forms, angle between two lines, distance of a point from a line; Lines through the point of intersection of two given lines, equation of the bisector of the angle between two lines, concurrency of lines; Centroid, orthocentre, incentre and circumcentre of a triangle.

Equation of a circle in various forms, equations of tangent, normal and chord.

Parametric equations of a circle, intersection of a circle with a straight line or a circle, equation of a circle through the points of intersection of two circles and those of a circle and a straight line.

Equations of a parabola, ellipse and hyperbola in standard form, their foci, directrices and eccentricity, parametric equations, equations of tangent and normal.

Locus Problems.

Three dimensions: Direction cosines and direction ratios, equation of a straight line in space, equation of a plane, distance of a point from a plane.

Differential calculus: Real valued functions of a real variable, into, onto and one-to-one functions, sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions, composite functions, absolute value, polynomial, rational, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions.

Limit and continuity of a function, limit and continuity of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions, L’Hospital rule of evaluation of limits of functions.

Even and odd functions, inverse of a function, continuity of composite functions, intermediate value property of continuous functions.

Derivative of a function, derivative of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions, chain rule, derivatives of polynomial, rational, trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions.

Derivatives of implicit functions, derivatives up to order two, geometrical interpretation of the derivative, tangents and normals, increasing and decreasing functions, maximum and minimum values of a function, Rolle’s Theorem and Lagrange’s Mean Value Theorem.

Integral calculus: Integration as the inverse process of differentiation, indefinite integrals of standard functions, definite integrals and their properties, Fundamental Theorem of Integral Calculus.

Integration by parts, integration by the methods of substitution and partial fractions, application of definite integrals to the determination of areas involving simple curves.

Formation of ordinary differential equations, solution of homogeneous differential equations, separation of variables method, linear first order differential equations.

Vectors: Addition of vectors, scalar multiplication, dot and cross products, scalar triple products and their geometrical interpretations

Algebra: Algebra of complex numbers, addition, multiplication, conjugation, polar representation, properties of modulus and principal argument, triangle inequality, cube roots of unity, geometric interpretations.

Quadratic equations with real coefficients, relations between roots and coefficients, formation of quadratic equations with given roots, symmetric functions of roots.

Arithmetic, geometric and harmonic progressions, arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means, sums of finite arithmetic and geometric progressions, infinite geometric series, sums of squares and cubes of the first n natural numbers.

Logarithms and their properties.

Permutations and combinations, Binomial theorem for a positive integral index, properties of binomial coefficients.

Matrices as a rectangular array of real numbers, equality of matrices, addition, multiplication by a scalar and product of matrices, transpose of a matrix, determinant of a square matrix of order up to three, inverse of a square matrix of order up to three, properties of these matrix operations, diagonal, symmetric and skew-symmetric matrices and their properties, solutions of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables.

Addition and multiplication rules of probability, conditional probability, Bayes Theorem, independence of events, computation of probability of events using permutations and combinations.

Trigonometry: Trigonometric functions, their periodicity and graphs, addition and subtraction formulae, formulae involving multiple and sub-multiple angles, general solution of trigonometric equations.

Relations between sides and angles of a triangle, sine rule, cosine rule, half-angle formula and the area of a triangle, inverse trigonometric functions (principal value only).

Analytical geometry:

Two dimensions: Cartesian coordinates, distance between two points, section formulae, shift of origin.

Equation of a straight line in various forms, angle between two lines, distance of a point from a line; Lines through the point of intersection of two given lines, equation of the bisector of the angle between two lines, concurrency of lines; Centroid, orthocentre, incentre and circumcentre of a triangle.

Equation of a circle in various forms, equations of tangent, normal and chord.

Parametric equations of a circle, intersection of a circle with a straight line or a circle, equation of a circle through the points of intersection of two circles and those of a circle and a straight line.

Equations of a parabola, ellipse and hyperbola in standard form, their foci, directrices and eccentricity, parametric equations, equations of tangent and normal.

Locus Problems.

Three dimensions: Direction cosines and direction ratios, equation of a straight line in space, equation of a plane, distance of a point from a plane.

Differential calculus: Real valued functions of a real variable, into, onto and one-to-one functions, sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions, composite functions, absolute value, polynomial, rational, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions.

Limit and continuity of a function, limit and continuity of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions, L’Hospital rule of evaluation of limits of functions.

Even and odd functions, inverse of a function, continuity of composite functions, intermediate value property of continuous functions.

Derivative of a function, derivative of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions, chain rule, derivatives of polynomial, rational, trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions.

Derivatives of implicit functions, derivatives up to order two, geometrical interpretation of the derivative, tangents and normals, increasing and decreasing functions, maximum and minimum values of a function, Rolle’s Theorem and Lagrange’s Mean Value Theorem.

Integral calculus: Integration as the inverse process of differentiation, indefinite integrals of standard functions, definite integrals and their properties, Fundamental Theorem of Integral Calculus.

Integration by parts, integration by the methods of substitution and partial fractions, application of definite integrals to the determination of areas involving simple curves.

Formation of ordinary differential equations, solution of homogeneous differential equations, separation of variables method, linear first order differential equations.

Vectors: Addition of vectors, scalar multiplication, dot and cross products, scalar triple products and their geometrical interpretations

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### IIT chemistry syllabus

IIT JEE 2009 - Chemistry Syllabus

CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry

General topics: Concept of atoms and molecules; Dalton’s atomic theory; Mole concept; Chemical formulae; Balanced chemical equations; Calculations (based on mole concept) involving common oxidation-reduction, neutralisation, and displacement reactions; Concentration in terms of mole fraction, molarity, molality and normality.

Gaseous and liquid states: Absolute scale of temperature, ideal gas equation; Deviation from ideality, van der Waals equation; Kinetic theory of gases, average, root mean square and most probable velocities and their relation with temperature; Law of partial pressures; Vapour pressure; Diffusion of gases.

Atomic structure and chemical bonding: Bohr model, spectrum of hydrogen atom, quantum numbers; Wave-particle duality, de Broglie hypothesis; Uncertainty principle; Qualitative quantum mechanical picture of hydrogen atom, shapes of s, p and d orbitals; Electronic configurations of elements (up to atomic number 36); Aufbau principle; Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule; Orbital overlap and covalent bond; Hybridisation involving s, p and d orbitals only; Orbital energy diagrams for homonuclear diatomic species; Hydrogen bond; Polarity in molecules, dipole moment (qualitative aspects only); VSEPR model and shapes of molecules (linear, angular, triangular, square planar, pyramidal, square pyramidal, trigonal bipyramidal, tetrahedral and octahedral).

Energetics: First law of thermodynamics; Internal energy, work and heat, pressure-volume work; Enthalpy, Hess’s law; Heat of reaction, fusion and vapourization; Second law of thermodynamics; Entropy; Free energy; Criterion of spontaneity.

Chemical equilibrium: Law of mass action; Equilibrium constant, Le Chatelier’s principle (effect of concentration, temperature and pressure); Significance of DG and DGo in chemical equilibrium; Solubility product, common ion effect, pH and buffer solutions; Acids and bases (Bronsted and Lewis concepts); Hydrolysis of salts.

Electrochemistry: Electrochemical cells and cell reactions; Standard electrode potentials; Nernst equation and its relation to DG; Electrochemical series, emf of galvanic cells; Faraday’s laws of electrolysis; Electrolytic conductance, specific, equivalent and molar conductivity, Kohlrausch’s law; Concentration cells.

Chemical kinetics: Rates of chemical reactions; Order of reactions; Rate constant; First order reactions; Temperature dependence of rate constant (Arrhenius equation).

Solid state: Classification of solids, crystalline state, seven crystal systems (cell parameters a, b, c, ), close packed structure of solids (cubic), packing in fcc, bcc and hcp lattices; Nearest neighbours, ionic radii, simple ionic compounds, point defects.

Solutions: Raoult’s law; Molecular weight determ- ination from lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point.

Surface chemistry: Elementary concepts of adsorption (excluding adsorption isotherms); Colloids: types, methods of preparation and general properties; Elementary ideas of emulsions, surfactants and micelles (only definitions and examples).

Nuclear chemistry: Radioactivity: isotopes and isobars; Properties of rays; Kinetics of radioactive decay (decay series excluded), carbon dating; Stability of nuclei with respect to proton-neutron ratio; Brief discussion on fission and fusion reactions.

Inorganic Chemistry

Isolation/preparation and properties of the following non-metals: Boron, silicon, nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, sulphur and halogens; Properties of allotropes of carbon (only diamond and graphite), phosphorus and sulphur.

Preparation and properties of the following compounds: Oxides, peroxides, hydroxides, carbonates, bicarbonates, chlorides and sulphates of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium; Boron: diborane, boric acid and borax; Aluminium: alumina, aluminium chloride and alums; Carbon: oxides and oxyacid (carbonic acid); Silicon: silicones, silicates and silicon carbide; Nitrogen: oxides, oxyacids and ammonia; Phosphorus: oxides, oxyacids (phosphorus acid, phosphoric acid) and phosphine; Oxygen: ozone and hydrogen peroxide; Sulphur: hydrogen sulphide, oxides, sulphurous acid, sulphuric acid and sodium thiosulphate; Halogens: hydrohalic acids, oxides and oxyacids of chlorine, bleaching powder; Xenon fluorides.

Transition elements (3d series): Definition, general characteristics, oxidation states and their stabilities, colour (excluding the details of electronic transitions) and calculation of spin-only magnetic moment; Coordination compounds: nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, cis-trans and ionisation isomerisms, hybridization and geometries of mononuclear coordination compounds (linear, tetrahedral, square planar and octahedral).

Preparation and properties of the following compounds: Oxides and chlorides of tin and lead; Oxides, chlorides and sulphates of Fe2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+; Potassium permanganate, potassium dichromate, silver oxide, silver nitrate, silver thiosulphate.

Ores and minerals: Commonly occurring ores and minerals of iron, copper, tin, lead, magnesium, aluminium, zinc and silver.

Extractive metallurgy: Chemical principles and reactions only (industrial details excluded); Carbon reduction method (iron and tin); Self reduction method (copper and lead); Electrolytic reduction method (magnesium and aluminium); Cyanide process (silver and gold).

Principles of qualitative analysis: Groups I to V (only Ag+, Hg2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Bi3+, Fe3+, Cr3+, Al3+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Zn2+, Mn2+ and Mg2+); Nitrate, halides (excluding fluoride), sulphate and sulphide.

Organic Chemistry

Concepts: Hybridisation of carbon; Sigma and pi-bonds; Shapes of simple organic molecules; Structural and geometrical isomerism; Optical isomerism of compounds containing up to two asymmetric centres, (R,S and E,Z nomenclature excluded); IUPAC nomenclature of simple organic compounds (only hydrocarbons, mono-functional and bi-functional compounds); Conformations of ethane and butane (Newman projections); Resonance and hyperconjugation; Keto-enol tautomerism; Determination of empirical and molecular formulae of simple compounds (only combustion method); Hydrogen bonds: definition and their effects on physical properties of alcohols and carboxylic acids; Inductive and resonance effects on acidity and basicity of organic acids and bases; Polarity and inductive effects in alkyl halides; Reactive intermediates produced during homolytic and heterolytic bond cleavage; Formation, structure and stability of carbocations, carbanions and free radicals.

Preparation, properties and reactions of alkanes: Homologous series, physical properties of alkanes (melting points, boiling points and density); Combustion and halogenation of alkanes; Preparation of alkanes by Wurtz reaction and decarboxylation reactions.

Preparation, properties and reactions of alkenes and alkynes: Physical properties of alkenes and alkynes (boiling points, density and dipole moments); Acidity of alkynes; Acid catalysed hydration of alkenes and alkynes (excluding the stereochemistry of addition and elimination); Reactions of alkenes with KMnO4 and ozone; Reduction of alkenes and alkynes; Preparation of alkenes and alkynes by elimination reactions; Electrophilic addition reactions of alkenes with X2, HX, HOX and H2O (X=halogen); Addition reactions of alkynes; Metal acetylides.

Reactions of benzene: Structure and aromaticity; Electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation, nitration, sulphonation, Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation; Effect of o-, m- and p-directing groups in monosubstituted benzenes.

Phenols: Acidity, electrophilic substitution reactions (halogenation, nitration and sulphonation); Reimer-Tieman reaction, Kolbe reaction.

Characteristic reactions of the following (including those mentioned above): Alkyl halides: rearrangement reactions of alkyl carbocation, Grignard reactions, nucleophilic substitution reactions; Alcohols: esterification, dehydration and oxidation, reaction with sodium, phosphorus halides, ZnCl2/concentrated HCl, conversion of alcohols into aldehydes and ketones; Ethers:Preparation by Williamson’s Synthesis; Aldehydes and Ketones: oxidation, reduction, oxime and hydrazone formation; aldol condensation, Perkin reaction; Cannizzaro reaction; haloform reaction and nucleophilic addition reactions (Grignard addition); Carboxylic acids: formation of esters, acid chlorides and amides, ester hydrolysis; Amines: basicity of substituted anilines and aliphatic amines, preparation from nitro compounds, reaction with nitrous acid, azo coupling reaction of diazonium salts of aromatic amines, Sandmeyer and related reactions of diazonium salts; carbylamine reaction; Haloarenes: nucleophilic aromatic substitution in haloarenes and substituted haloarenes (excluding Benzyne mechanism and Cine substitution).

Carbohydrates: Classification; mono- and di-saccharides (glucose and sucrose); Oxidation, reduction, glycoside formation and hydrolysis of sucrose.

Amino acids and peptides: General structure (only primary structure for peptides) and physical properties.

Properties and uses of some important polymers: Natural rubber, cellulose, nylon, teflon and PVC.

Practical organic chemistry: Detection of elements (N, S, halogens); Detection and identification of the following functional groups: hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic), carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone), carboxyl, amino and nitro; Chemical methods of separation of mono-functional organic compounds from binary mixtures.

CHEMISTRY

Physical Chemistry

General topics: Concept of atoms and molecules; Dalton’s atomic theory; Mole concept; Chemical formulae; Balanced chemical equations; Calculations (based on mole concept) involving common oxidation-reduction, neutralisation, and displacement reactions; Concentration in terms of mole fraction, molarity, molality and normality.

Gaseous and liquid states: Absolute scale of temperature, ideal gas equation; Deviation from ideality, van der Waals equation; Kinetic theory of gases, average, root mean square and most probable velocities and their relation with temperature; Law of partial pressures; Vapour pressure; Diffusion of gases.

Atomic structure and chemical bonding: Bohr model, spectrum of hydrogen atom, quantum numbers; Wave-particle duality, de Broglie hypothesis; Uncertainty principle; Qualitative quantum mechanical picture of hydrogen atom, shapes of s, p and d orbitals; Electronic configurations of elements (up to atomic number 36); Aufbau principle; Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule; Orbital overlap and covalent bond; Hybridisation involving s, p and d orbitals only; Orbital energy diagrams for homonuclear diatomic species; Hydrogen bond; Polarity in molecules, dipole moment (qualitative aspects only); VSEPR model and shapes of molecules (linear, angular, triangular, square planar, pyramidal, square pyramidal, trigonal bipyramidal, tetrahedral and octahedral).

Energetics: First law of thermodynamics; Internal energy, work and heat, pressure-volume work; Enthalpy, Hess’s law; Heat of reaction, fusion and vapourization; Second law of thermodynamics; Entropy; Free energy; Criterion of spontaneity.

Chemical equilibrium: Law of mass action; Equilibrium constant, Le Chatelier’s principle (effect of concentration, temperature and pressure); Significance of DG and DGo in chemical equilibrium; Solubility product, common ion effect, pH and buffer solutions; Acids and bases (Bronsted and Lewis concepts); Hydrolysis of salts.

Electrochemistry: Electrochemical cells and cell reactions; Standard electrode potentials; Nernst equation and its relation to DG; Electrochemical series, emf of galvanic cells; Faraday’s laws of electrolysis; Electrolytic conductance, specific, equivalent and molar conductivity, Kohlrausch’s law; Concentration cells.

Chemical kinetics: Rates of chemical reactions; Order of reactions; Rate constant; First order reactions; Temperature dependence of rate constant (Arrhenius equation).

Solid state: Classification of solids, crystalline state, seven crystal systems (cell parameters a, b, c, ), close packed structure of solids (cubic), packing in fcc, bcc and hcp lattices; Nearest neighbours, ionic radii, simple ionic compounds, point defects.

Solutions: Raoult’s law; Molecular weight determ- ination from lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point.

Surface chemistry: Elementary concepts of adsorption (excluding adsorption isotherms); Colloids: types, methods of preparation and general properties; Elementary ideas of emulsions, surfactants and micelles (only definitions and examples).

Nuclear chemistry: Radioactivity: isotopes and isobars; Properties of rays; Kinetics of radioactive decay (decay series excluded), carbon dating; Stability of nuclei with respect to proton-neutron ratio; Brief discussion on fission and fusion reactions.

Inorganic Chemistry

Isolation/preparation and properties of the following non-metals: Boron, silicon, nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, sulphur and halogens; Properties of allotropes of carbon (only diamond and graphite), phosphorus and sulphur.

Preparation and properties of the following compounds: Oxides, peroxides, hydroxides, carbonates, bicarbonates, chlorides and sulphates of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium; Boron: diborane, boric acid and borax; Aluminium: alumina, aluminium chloride and alums; Carbon: oxides and oxyacid (carbonic acid); Silicon: silicones, silicates and silicon carbide; Nitrogen: oxides, oxyacids and ammonia; Phosphorus: oxides, oxyacids (phosphorus acid, phosphoric acid) and phosphine; Oxygen: ozone and hydrogen peroxide; Sulphur: hydrogen sulphide, oxides, sulphurous acid, sulphuric acid and sodium thiosulphate; Halogens: hydrohalic acids, oxides and oxyacids of chlorine, bleaching powder; Xenon fluorides.

Transition elements (3d series): Definition, general characteristics, oxidation states and their stabilities, colour (excluding the details of electronic transitions) and calculation of spin-only magnetic moment; Coordination compounds: nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, cis-trans and ionisation isomerisms, hybridization and geometries of mononuclear coordination compounds (linear, tetrahedral, square planar and octahedral).

Preparation and properties of the following compounds: Oxides and chlorides of tin and lead; Oxides, chlorides and sulphates of Fe2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+; Potassium permanganate, potassium dichromate, silver oxide, silver nitrate, silver thiosulphate.

Ores and minerals: Commonly occurring ores and minerals of iron, copper, tin, lead, magnesium, aluminium, zinc and silver.

Extractive metallurgy: Chemical principles and reactions only (industrial details excluded); Carbon reduction method (iron and tin); Self reduction method (copper and lead); Electrolytic reduction method (magnesium and aluminium); Cyanide process (silver and gold).

Principles of qualitative analysis: Groups I to V (only Ag+, Hg2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Bi3+, Fe3+, Cr3+, Al3+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Zn2+, Mn2+ and Mg2+); Nitrate, halides (excluding fluoride), sulphate and sulphide.

Organic Chemistry

Concepts: Hybridisation of carbon; Sigma and pi-bonds; Shapes of simple organic molecules; Structural and geometrical isomerism; Optical isomerism of compounds containing up to two asymmetric centres, (R,S and E,Z nomenclature excluded); IUPAC nomenclature of simple organic compounds (only hydrocarbons, mono-functional and bi-functional compounds); Conformations of ethane and butane (Newman projections); Resonance and hyperconjugation; Keto-enol tautomerism; Determination of empirical and molecular formulae of simple compounds (only combustion method); Hydrogen bonds: definition and their effects on physical properties of alcohols and carboxylic acids; Inductive and resonance effects on acidity and basicity of organic acids and bases; Polarity and inductive effects in alkyl halides; Reactive intermediates produced during homolytic and heterolytic bond cleavage; Formation, structure and stability of carbocations, carbanions and free radicals.

Preparation, properties and reactions of alkanes: Homologous series, physical properties of alkanes (melting points, boiling points and density); Combustion and halogenation of alkanes; Preparation of alkanes by Wurtz reaction and decarboxylation reactions.

Preparation, properties and reactions of alkenes and alkynes: Physical properties of alkenes and alkynes (boiling points, density and dipole moments); Acidity of alkynes; Acid catalysed hydration of alkenes and alkynes (excluding the stereochemistry of addition and elimination); Reactions of alkenes with KMnO4 and ozone; Reduction of alkenes and alkynes; Preparation of alkenes and alkynes by elimination reactions; Electrophilic addition reactions of alkenes with X2, HX, HOX and H2O (X=halogen); Addition reactions of alkynes; Metal acetylides.

Reactions of benzene: Structure and aromaticity; Electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation, nitration, sulphonation, Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation; Effect of o-, m- and p-directing groups in monosubstituted benzenes.

Phenols: Acidity, electrophilic substitution reactions (halogenation, nitration and sulphonation); Reimer-Tieman reaction, Kolbe reaction.

Characteristic reactions of the following (including those mentioned above): Alkyl halides: rearrangement reactions of alkyl carbocation, Grignard reactions, nucleophilic substitution reactions; Alcohols: esterification, dehydration and oxidation, reaction with sodium, phosphorus halides, ZnCl2/concentrated HCl, conversion of alcohols into aldehydes and ketones; Ethers:Preparation by Williamson’s Synthesis; Aldehydes and Ketones: oxidation, reduction, oxime and hydrazone formation; aldol condensation, Perkin reaction; Cannizzaro reaction; haloform reaction and nucleophilic addition reactions (Grignard addition); Carboxylic acids: formation of esters, acid chlorides and amides, ester hydrolysis; Amines: basicity of substituted anilines and aliphatic amines, preparation from nitro compounds, reaction with nitrous acid, azo coupling reaction of diazonium salts of aromatic amines, Sandmeyer and related reactions of diazonium salts; carbylamine reaction; Haloarenes: nucleophilic aromatic substitution in haloarenes and substituted haloarenes (excluding Benzyne mechanism and Cine substitution).

Carbohydrates: Classification; mono- and di-saccharides (glucose and sucrose); Oxidation, reduction, glycoside formation and hydrolysis of sucrose.

Amino acids and peptides: General structure (only primary structure for peptides) and physical properties.

Properties and uses of some important polymers: Natural rubber, cellulose, nylon, teflon and PVC.

Practical organic chemistry: Detection of elements (N, S, halogens); Detection and identification of the following functional groups: hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic), carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone), carboxyl, amino and nitro; Chemical methods of separation of mono-functional organic compounds from binary mixtures.

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### IIT physics syllabus

General: Units and dimensions, dimensional analysis; least count, significant figures; Methods of measurement and error analysis for physical quantities pertaining to the following experiments: Experiments based on using Vernier calipers and screw gauge (micrometer), Determination of g using simple pendulum, Young’s modulus by Searle’s method, Specific heat of a liquid using calorimeter, focal length of a concave mirror and a convex lens using u-v method, Speed of sound using resonance column, Verification of Ohm’s law using voltmeter and ammeter, and specific resistance of the material of a wire using meter bridge and post office box.

Mechanics: Kinematics in one and two dimensions (Cartesian coordinates only), projectiles; Uniform Circular motion; Relative velocity.

Newton’s laws of motion; Inertial and uniformly accelerated frames of reference; Static and dynamic friction; Kinetic and potential energy; Work and power; Conservation of linear momentum and mechanical energy.

Systems of particles; Centre of mass and its motion; Impulse; Elastic and inelastic collisions.

Law of gravitation; Gravitational potential and field; Acceleration due to gravity; Motion of planets and satellites in circular orbits; Escape velocity.

Rigid body, moment of inertia, parallel and perpendicular axes theorems, moment of inertia of uniform bodies with simple geometrical shapes; Angular momentum; Torque; Conservation of angular momentum; Dynamics of rigid bodies with fixed axis of rotation; Rolling without slipping of rings, cylinders and spheres; Equilibrium of rigid bodies; Collision of point masses with rigid bodies.

Linear and angular simple harmonic motions.

Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus.

Pressure in a fluid; Pascal’s law; Buoyancy; Surface energy and surface tension, capillary rise; Viscosity (Poiseuille’s equation excluded), Stoke’s law; Terminal velocity, Streamline flow, equation of continuity, Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.

Wave motion (plane waves only), longitudinal and transverse waves, superposition of waves; Progressive and stationary waves; Vibration of strings and air columns;Resonance; Beats; Speed of sound in gases; Doppler effect (in sound).

Thermal physics: Thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gases; Calorimetry, latent heat; Heat conduction in one dimension; Elementary concepts of convection and radiation; Newton’s law of cooling; Ideal gas laws; Specific heats (Cv and Cp for monoatomic and diatomic gases); Isothermal and adiabatic processes, bulk modulus of gases; Equivalence of heat and work; First law of thermodynamics and its applications (only for ideal gases); Blackbody radiation: absorptive and emissive powers; Kirchhoff’s law; Wien’s displacement law, Stefan’s law.

Electricity and magnetism: Coulomb’s law; Electric field and potential; Electrical potential energy of a system of point charges and of electrical dipoles in a uniform electrostatic field; Electric field lines; Flux of electric field; Gauss’s law and its application in simple cases, such as, to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell.

Capacitance; Parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectrics; Capacitors in series and parallel; Energy stored in a capacitor.

Electric current; Ohm’s law; Series and parallel arrangements of resistances and cells; Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications; Heating effect of current.

Biot–Savart’s law and Ampere’s law; Magnetic field near a current-carrying straight wire, along the axis of a circular coil and inside a long straight solenoid; Force on a moving charge and on a current-carrying wire in a uniform magnetic field.

Magnetic moment of a current loop; Effect of a uniform magnetic field on a current loop; Moving coil galvano- meter, voltmeter, ammeter and their conversions.

Electromagnetic induction: Faraday’s law, Lenz’s law; Self and mutual inductance; RC, LR and LC circuits with d.c. and a.c. sources.

Optics: Rectilinear propagation of light; Reflection and refraction at plane and spherical surfaces; Total internal reflection; Deviation and dispersion of light by a prism; Thin lenses; Combinations of mirrors and thin lenses; Magnification.

Wave nature of light: Huygen’s principle, interference limited to Young’s double-slit experiment.

Modern physics: Atomic nucleus; Alpha, beta and gamma radiations; Law of radioactive decay; Decay constant; Half-life and mean life; Binding energy and its calculation; Fission and fusion processes; Energy calculation in these processes.

Photoelectric effect; Bohr’s theory of hydrogen-like atoms; Characteristic and continuous X-rays, Moseley’s law; de Broglie wavelength of matter waves.

Mechanics: Kinematics in one and two dimensions (Cartesian coordinates only), projectiles; Uniform Circular motion; Relative velocity.

Newton’s laws of motion; Inertial and uniformly accelerated frames of reference; Static and dynamic friction; Kinetic and potential energy; Work and power; Conservation of linear momentum and mechanical energy.

Systems of particles; Centre of mass and its motion; Impulse; Elastic and inelastic collisions.

Law of gravitation; Gravitational potential and field; Acceleration due to gravity; Motion of planets and satellites in circular orbits; Escape velocity.

Rigid body, moment of inertia, parallel and perpendicular axes theorems, moment of inertia of uniform bodies with simple geometrical shapes; Angular momentum; Torque; Conservation of angular momentum; Dynamics of rigid bodies with fixed axis of rotation; Rolling without slipping of rings, cylinders and spheres; Equilibrium of rigid bodies; Collision of point masses with rigid bodies.

Linear and angular simple harmonic motions.

Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus.

Pressure in a fluid; Pascal’s law; Buoyancy; Surface energy and surface tension, capillary rise; Viscosity (Poiseuille’s equation excluded), Stoke’s law; Terminal velocity, Streamline flow, equation of continuity, Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.

Wave motion (plane waves only), longitudinal and transverse waves, superposition of waves; Progressive and stationary waves; Vibration of strings and air columns;Resonance; Beats; Speed of sound in gases; Doppler effect (in sound).

Thermal physics: Thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gases; Calorimetry, latent heat; Heat conduction in one dimension; Elementary concepts of convection and radiation; Newton’s law of cooling; Ideal gas laws; Specific heats (Cv and Cp for monoatomic and diatomic gases); Isothermal and adiabatic processes, bulk modulus of gases; Equivalence of heat and work; First law of thermodynamics and its applications (only for ideal gases); Blackbody radiation: absorptive and emissive powers; Kirchhoff’s law; Wien’s displacement law, Stefan’s law.

Electricity and magnetism: Coulomb’s law; Electric field and potential; Electrical potential energy of a system of point charges and of electrical dipoles in a uniform electrostatic field; Electric field lines; Flux of electric field; Gauss’s law and its application in simple cases, such as, to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell.

Capacitance; Parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectrics; Capacitors in series and parallel; Energy stored in a capacitor.

Electric current; Ohm’s law; Series and parallel arrangements of resistances and cells; Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications; Heating effect of current.

Biot–Savart’s law and Ampere’s law; Magnetic field near a current-carrying straight wire, along the axis of a circular coil and inside a long straight solenoid; Force on a moving charge and on a current-carrying wire in a uniform magnetic field.

Magnetic moment of a current loop; Effect of a uniform magnetic field on a current loop; Moving coil galvano- meter, voltmeter, ammeter and their conversions.

Electromagnetic induction: Faraday’s law, Lenz’s law; Self and mutual inductance; RC, LR and LC circuits with d.c. and a.c. sources.

Optics: Rectilinear propagation of light; Reflection and refraction at plane and spherical surfaces; Total internal reflection; Deviation and dispersion of light by a prism; Thin lenses; Combinations of mirrors and thin lenses; Magnification.

Wave nature of light: Huygen’s principle, interference limited to Young’s double-slit experiment.

Modern physics: Atomic nucleus; Alpha, beta and gamma radiations; Law of radioactive decay; Decay constant; Half-life and mean life; Binding energy and its calculation; Fission and fusion processes; Energy calculation in these processes.

Photoelectric effect; Bohr’s theory of hydrogen-like atoms; Characteristic and continuous X-rays, Moseley’s law; de Broglie wavelength of matter waves.

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IIT

## Tuesday, May 5, 2009

### IES syllabus

General Ability Test

Part A: General English. The question paper in General English will be designed to test the candidate’s understanding of English and workmanlike use of words.

Part B: General Studies: The paper in General Studies will include knowledge of current events and of such matters as of everyday observation and experience in their scientific aspects as may be expected of an educated person. The paper will also include questions on History of India and Geography of a nature which candidates should be able to answer without special study.

CIVIL ENGINEERING PAPER-I

(For both objective and conventional type papers)

1. BUILDING MATERIALS

Timber : Different types and species of structural timber, density-moisture relationship, strength in different directions, defects, influence of defects on permissible stress, preservation, dry and wet rots, codal provisions for design, Plywood.

Bricks : Types, Indian Standard classification, absorption, saturation factor, strength in masonry, influence of morter strength on masonry strength.

Cement : Compounds of, different types, setting times, strength.

Cement Mortar : Ingredients, proportions, water demand, mortars for plastering and masonry.

Concrete : Importance of W/C Ratio, Strength, ingredients including admixtures, workability, testing for strength, elasticity, non-destructive testing, mix design methods.

2. SOLID MECHANICS

Elastic constants, stress, plane stress, Mohr’s circle of stress, strains, plane strain, Mohr’s circle of strain, combined stress; Elastic theories of failure; Simple bending, shear; Torsion of circular and rectangular sections and simple members.

3. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

Analysis of determinate structures - different methods including graphical methods.

Analysis of indeterminate skeletal frames - moment distribution, slope-deflection, stiffness and force methods, energy methods, Muller-Breslau principle and application.

Plastic analysis of indeterminate beams and simple frames - shape factors.

4. DESIGN OF STEEL STRUCTURES

Principles of working stress method. Design of connections, simple members, Built-up sections and frames, Design of Industrial roofs. Principles of ultimate load design. Design of simple members and frames.

5. DESIGN OF CONCRETE AND MASONRY STRUCTURES

Limit state design for bending, shear, axial compression and combined forces. Codal provisions for slabs, beams, walls and footings. Working stress method of design of R.C. members.

Principles of prestressed concrete design, materials, methods of prestressing, losses. Design of simple members and determinate structures. Introductions to prestressing of indeterminate structures.

Design of brick masonry as per I.S. Codes.

6. CONSTRUCTION PRACTICE, PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT

Concreting Equipment:

Weight Batcher, Mixer, vibrator, batching plant, concrete pump.

Cranes, hoists, lifting equipment.

Earthwork Equipment :

Power shovel, hoe, dozer, dumper, trailers and tractor, rollers, sheep foot rollers, pumps.

Construction, Planning and Management :

Bar chart, linked bar chart, work-break down structures, Activity - on - arrow diagrams. Critical path, probabilistic activity durations; Event-based networks.

PERT network: Time-cost study, crashing; Resource allocation.

CIVIL ENGINEERING PAPER-II

(For both objective and conventional type papers)

1. (a) FLUID MECHANICS, OPEN CHANNEL FLOW, PIPE FLOW:

Fluid Properties, Pressure, Thrust, Buoyancy; Flow Kinematics; Integration of flow equations; Flow measurement; Relative motion; Moment of momentum; Viscosity, Boundary layer and Control, Drag, Lift; dimensional Analysis, Modelling; Cavitation; Flow oscillations; Momentum and Energy principles in Open channel flow, Flow controls, Hydraulic jump, Flow sections and properties; Normal flow, Gradually varied flow; Surges; Flow development and losses in pipe flows, Measurements; Siphons; Surges and Water hammer; Delivery of Power Pipe networks.

(b) HYDRAULIC MACHINES AND HYDROPOWER:

Centrifugal pumps, types, performance parameters, scaling, pumps in parallel; Reciprocating pumps, air vessels, performance parameters; Hydraulic ram; Hydraulic turbines, types, performance parameters, controls, choice; Power house, classification and layout, storage, pondage, control of supply.

2. (a) HYDROLOGY :

Hydrological cycle, precipitation and related data analyses, PMP, unit and synthetic hydrographs; Evaporation and transpiration; Floods and their management, PMF; Streams and their gauging; River morphology; Routing of floods; Capacity of Reservoirs.

(b) WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING :

Water resources of the globe: Multipurpose uses of Water: Soil-Plant-Water relationships, irrigation systems, water demand assessment; Storages and their yields, ground water yield and well hydraulics; Waterlogging, drainage design; Irrigation revenue; Design of rigid boundary canals, Lacey’s and Tractive force concepts in canal design, lining of canals; Sediment transport in canals; Non-Overflow and overflow sections of gravity dams and their design, Energy dissipators and tailwater rating; Design of headworks, distribution works, falls, cross-drainage works, outlets; River training.

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

3. (a) WATER SUPPLY ENGINEERING :

Sources of supply, yields, design of intakes and conductors; Estimation of demand; Water quality standards; Control of Water-borne diseases; Primary and secondary treatment, detailing and maintenance of treatment units; Conveyance and distribution systems of treated water, leakages and control; Rural water supply; Institutional and industrial water supply.

(b) WASTE WATER ENGINEERING:

Urban rain water disposal; Systems of sewage collection and disposal; Design of sewers and sewerage systems; pumping; Characteristics of sewage and its treatment, Disposal of products of sewage treatment, streamflow rejuvenation Institutional and industrial sewage management; Plumbing Systems; Rural and semi-urban sanitation.

(c) SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

Sources, classification, collection and disposal; Design and Management of landfills.

(d) AIR AND NOISE POLLUTION AND ECOLOGY:

Sources and effects of air pollution, monitoring of air pollution; Noise pollution and standards; Ecological chain and balance, Environmental assessment.

4 (a) SOIL MECHANICS:

Properties of soils, classification and interrelationship; Compaction behaviour, methods of compaction and their choice; Permeability and seepage, flow nets, Inverted filters; Compressibility and consolidation; Shearing resistance, stresses and failure; soil testing in laboratory and in-situ; Stress path and applications; Earth pressure theories, stress distribution in soil; soil exploration, samplers, load tests, penetration tests.

(b) FOUNDATION ENGINEERING :

Types of foundations, Selection criteria, bearing capacity, settlement, laboratory and field tests; Types of piles and their design and layout, Foundations on expansive soils, swelling and its prevention, foundation on swelling soils.

5. (a) SURVEYING :

Classification of surveys, scales, accuracy; Measurement of distances - direct and indirect methods; optical and electronic devices; Measurement of directions, prismatic compass, local attraction; Theodolites - types; Measurement of elevations - Spirit and trigonometric levelling; Relief representation; Contours; Digital elevation modelling concept; Establishment of control by triangulations and traversing - measurements and adjustment of observations, computation of coordinates; Field astronomy, Concept of global positioning system; Map preparation by plane tabling and by photogrammetry; Remote sensing concepts, map substitutes.

(b) TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING :

Planning of highway systems, alignment and geometric design, horizontal and vertical curves, grade separation; Materials and construction methods for different surfaces and maintenance: Principles of pavement design; Drainage.

Traffic surveys, Intersections, signalling: Mass transit systems, accessibility, networking.

Tunnelling, alignment, methods of construction, disposal of muck, drainage, lighting and ventilation, traffic control, emergency management.

Planning of railway systems, terminology and designs, relating to gauge, track, controls, transits, rolling stock, tractive power and track modernisation; Maintenance; Appurtenant works; Containerisation.

Harbours - layouts, shipping lanes, anchoring, location identification; Littoral transport with erosion and deposition; sounding methods; Dry and Wet docks, components and operational Tidal data and analyses.

Airports - layout and orientation; Runway and taxiway design and drainage management; Zoning laws; Visual aids and air traffic control; Helipads, hangers, service equipment.

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING PAPER-I

(For both objective and conventional type papers)

1. Thermodynamics, Cycles and IC Engines, Basic concepts, Open and Closed systems. Heat and work. Zeroth, First and Second Law, Application to non-Flow and Flow processes. Entropy, Availability, Irreversibility and Tds relations. Claperyron and real gas equations, Properties of ideal gases and vapours. Standard vapour, Gas power and Refrigeration cycles. Two stage compressor. C-I and S.I. Engines. Pre-ignition, Detonation and Diesel-knock, Fuel injection and Carburation, Supercharging. Turbo-prop and Rocket engines, Engine Cooling, Emission & Control, Flue gas analysis, Measurement of Calorific values. Conventional and Nuclear fuels, Elements of Nuclear power production.

2. Heat Transfer and Refrigeration and Airconditioning. Modes of heat transfer. One dimensional steady and unsteady conduction. Composite slab and Equivalent Resistance. Heat dissipation from extended surfaces, Heat exchangers, Overall heat transfer coefficient, Empirical correlations for heat transfer in laminar and turbulent flows and for free and forced Convection, Thermal boundary layer over a flat plate. Fundamentals of diffusive and connective mass transfer, Black body and basic concepts in Radiation, Enclosure theory, Shape factor, Net work analysis. Heat pump and Refrigeration cycles and systems, Refrigerants. Condensers, Evaporates and Expansion devices, Psychrometry, Charts and application to air conditioning, Sensible heating and cooling, Effective temperature, comfort indices, Load calculations, Solar refrigeration, controls, Duct design.

3. Fluid Mechanics.

Properties and classification of fluids, Manometry, forces on immersed surfaces, Center of pressure, Buoyancy, Elements of stability of floating bodies. Kinematics and Dynamics.

Irrotational and incompressible. Inviscid flow. Velocity potential, Pressure field and Forces on immersed bodies. Bernoulli’s equation, Fully developed flow through pipes, Pressure drop calculations, Measurement of flow rate and Pressure drop. Elements of boundary layer theory, Integral approach, Laminar and tubulent flows, Separations. Flow over weirs and notches. Open channel flow, Hydraulic jump. Dimensionless numbers, Dimensional analysis, Similitude and modelling. One-dimensional isentropic flow, Normal shock wave, Flow through convergent - divergent ducts, Oblique shock-wave, Rayleigh and Fanno lines.

4. Fluid Machinery and Steam Generators.

Performance, Operation and control of hydraulic Pump and impulse and reaction Turbines, Specific speed, Classification. Energy transfer, Coupling, Power transmission, Steam generators Fire-tube and water-tube boilers. Flow of steam through Nozzles and Diffusers, Wetness and condensation. Various types of steam and gas Turbines, Velocity diagrams. Partial admission. Reciprocating, Centrifugal and axial flow Compressors, Multistage compression, role of Mach Number, Reheat, Regeneration, Efficiency, Governance.

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING PAPER - II

(For both objective and conventional type papers)

5. THEORY OF MACHINES:

Kinematic and dynamic analysis of planer mechanisms. Cams. Gears and gear trains. Flywheels. Governors. Balancing of rigid rotors and field balancing. Balancing of single and multicylinder engines, Linear vibration analysis of mechanical systems. Critical speeds and whirling of shafts Automatic controls.

6. MACHINE DESIGN :

Design of Joints : cotters, keys, splines, welded joints, threaded fasteners, joints formed by interference fits. Design of friction drives : couplings and clutches, belt and chain drives, power screws.

Design of Power transmission systems : gears and gear drives shaft and axle, wire ropes.

Design of bearings : hydrodynamics bearings and rolling element bearings.

7. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS

Stress and strain in two dimensions, Principal stresses and strains, Mohr’s construction, linear elastic materials, isotropy and anisotropy, stress-strain relations, uniaxial loading, thermal stresses. Beams : Bending moment and shear force diagram, bending stresses and deflection of beams. Shear stress distribution. Torsion of shafts, helical springs. Combined stresses, thick-and thin-walled pressure vessels. Struts and columns. Strain energy concepts and theories of failure.

8. ENGINEERING MATERIALS :

Basic concepts on structure of solids. Crystalline maferials. Detects in crystalline materials. Alloys and binary phase diagrams. Structure and properties of common engineering materials. Heat treatment of steels. Plastics, Ceramics and composite materials. Common applications of various materials.

9. PRODUCTION ENGINEERING :

Metal Forming : Basic Principles of forging, drawing and extrusion; High energy rate forming; Powder metallurgy.

Metal Casting : Die casting, investment casting, Shall Moulding, Centrifugal Casting, Gating & Riser design; melting furnaces.

Fabrication Processes : Principles of Gas, Arc, Shielded arc Welding; Advanced Welding Processes, Weldability: Metallurgy of Welding.

Metal Cutting : Turning, Methods of Screw Production, Drilling, Boring, Milling, Gear Manufacturing, Production of flat surfaces, Grinding & Finishing Processes. Computer Controlled Manufacturing Systems-CNC, DNC, FMS, Automation and Robotics.

Cutting Tools Materials, Tool Geometry, Mechanism of Tool Wear, Tool Life & Machinability; Measurement of cutting forces. Economics of Machining. Unconventional Machining Processes. Jigs and Fixtures. Fits and tolerances, Measurement of surface texture, Comparators Alignment tests and reconditioning of Machine Tools.

10. INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING :

Production Planning and Control : Forecasting - Moving average, exponential smoothing, Operations, scheduling; assembly line balancing, Product development, Break-even analysis, Capacity planning, PERT and CPM.

Control Operations : Inventory control ABC analysis, EOQ model, Materials requirement planning. Job design, Job standards, Work measurement, Quality Management - Quality analysis and control. Operations Research : Linear Programming - Graphical and Simplex methods, Transportation and assignment models. Single server queueing model.

Value Engineering : Value analysis for cost/value.

11. ELEMENTS OF COMPUTATION :

Computer Organisation, Flow charting, Features of Common computer Languages - FORTRAN, d Base III, Lotus 1-2-3, C and elementary Programming.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAPER - I

(For both objective and conventional types papers)

1. EM Theory

Electric and magnetic fields. Gauss’s Law and Amperes Law. Fields in dielectrics, conductors and magnetic materials. Maxwell’s equations. Time varying fields. Plane-Wave propagating in dielectric and conducting media. Transmission lines.

2. Electrical Materials

Band Theory, Conductors, Semi-conductors and Insulators. Super-conductivity. Insulators for electrical and electronic applications. Magnetic materials. Ferro and ferri magnetism. Ceramics, Properties and applications. Hall effect and its applications. Special semi conductors.

3. Electrical Circuits

Circuits elements. Kirchoff’s Laws. Mesh and nodal analysis. Network Theorems and applications. Natural response and forced response. Transient response and steady state response for arbitrary inputs. Properties of networks in terms of poles and zeros. Transfer function. Resonant circuits. Threephase circuits. Two-port networks. Elements of two-element network synthesis.

4. Measurements and Instrumentation

Units and Standards. Error analysis, measurement of current, Voltage, power, Power-factor and energy. Indicating instruments. Measurement of resistance, inductance, Capacitance and frequency. Bridge measurements. Electronic measuring instruments. Digital Voltmeter and frequency counter. Transducers and their applications to the measurement of non-electrical quantities like temperature, pressure, flow-rate displacement, acceleration, noise level etc. Data acquisition systems. A/D and D/A converters.

5. CONTROL SYSTEMS.

Mathematical modelling of physical systems. Block diagrams and signal flow graphs and their reduction. Time domain and frequency domain analysis of linear dynamical system. Errors for different type of inputs and stability criteria for feedback systems. Stability analysis using Routh-Hurwitz array, Nyquist plot and Bode plot. Root locus and Nicols chart and the estimation of gain and phase margin. Basic concepts of compensator design. State variable matrix and its use in system modelling and design. Sampled data system and performance of such a system with the samples in the error channel. Stability of sampled data system. Elements of non-linear control analysis. Control system components, electromechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic components.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAPER - II

(For both objective and conventional types papers)

1. Electrical Machines and Power Transformers

Magnetic Circuits - Analysis and Design of Power transformers. Construction and testing. Equivalent circuits. Losses and efficiency. Regulation. Auto-transformer, 3-phase transformer. Parallel operation.

Basic concepts in rotating machines. EMF, torque, basic machine types. Construction and operation, leakage losses and efficiency.

B.C. Machines. Construction, Excitation methods. Circuit models. Armature reaction and commutation. Characteristics and performance analysis. Generators and motors. Starting and speed control. Testing, Losses and efficiency.

Synchronous Machines. Construction. Circuit model. Operating characteristics and performance analysis. Synchronous reactance. Efficiency. Voltage regulation. Salient-pole machine, Parallel operation. Hunting. Short circuit transients.

Induction Machines. Construction. Principle of operation. Rotating fields. Characteristics and performance analysis. Determination of circuit model. Circle diagram. Starting and speed control.

Fractional KW motors. Single-phase synchronous and induction motors.

2. Power systems

Types of Power Stations, Hydro, Thermal and Nuclear Stations. Pumped storage plants. Economics and operating factors.

Power transmission lines. Modeling and performance characteristics. Voltage control. Load flow studies. Optimal power system operation. Load frequency control. Symmetrical short circuit analysis. ZBus formulation. Symmetrical Components. Per Unit representation. Fault analysis. Transient and steady-state stability of power systems. Equal area criterion.

Power system Transients. Power system Protection Circuit breakers. Relays. HVDC transmission.

3. ANALOG AND DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND CIRCUITS

Semiconductor device physics, PN junctions and transistors, circuit models and parameters, FET, Zener, tunnel, Schottky, photo diodes and their applications, rectifier circuits, voltage regulators and multipliers, switching behavior of diodes and transistors.

Small signal amplifiers, biasing circuits, frequency response and improvement, multistage amplifiers and feed-back amplifiers, D.C. amplifiers, Oscillators. Large signal amplifiers, coupling methods, push pull amplifiers, operational amplifiers, wave shaping circuits. Multivibrators and flip-flops and their applications. Digital logic gate families, universal gates-combination circuits for arithmetic and logic operational, sequential logic circuits. Counters, registers, RAM and ROMs.

4. MICROPROCESSORS

Microprocessor architecture-Instruction set and simple assembly language programming. Interfacing for memory and I/O. Applications of Micro-processors in power system.

5. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

Types of modulation; AM, FM and PM. Demodulators. Noise and bandwidth considerations. Digital communication systems. Pulse code modulation and demodulation. Elements of sound and vision broadcasting. Carrier communication. Frequency division and time division multiplexing, Telemetry system in power engineering.

6. POWER ELECTRONICS

Power Semiconductor devices. Thyristor. Power transistor, GTOs and MOSFETS. Characteristics and operation. AC to DC Converters; 1-phase and 3-phase DC to DC Converters; AC regulators. Thyristor controlled reactors; switched capacitor networks.

Inverters; single-phase and 3-phase. Pulse width modulation. Sinusoidal modulation with uniform sampling. Switched mode power supplies.

ELECTRONICS & TELECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING PAPER - I

(For both objective and conventional type papers)

1. Materials and Components :

Structure and properties of Electrical Engineering materials; Conductors, Semiconductors and Insulators, magnetic, Ferroelectric, Piezoelectric, Ceramic, Optical and Super-conducting materials. Passive components and characteristics Resistors, Capacitors and Inductors; Ferrites, Quartz crystal Ceramic resonators, Electromagnetic and Electromechanical components.

2. Physical Electronics, Electron Devices and ICs:

Electrons and holes in semiconductors, Carrier Statistics, Mechanism of current flow in a semiconductor, Hall effect; Junction theory; Different types of diodes and their characteristics; Bipolar Junction transistor; Field effect transistors; Power switching devices like SCRs, GTOs, power MOSFETS; Basics of ICs - bipolar, MOS and CMOS types; basic of Opto Electronics.

3. Signals and Systems

Classification of signals and systems: System modelling in terms of differential and difference equations; State variable representation; Fourier series; Fourier transforms and their application to system analysis; Laplace transforms and their application to system analysis; Convolution and superposition integrals and their applications; Z-transforms and their applications to the analysis and characterisation of discrete time systems; Random signals and probability, Correlation functions; Spectral density; Response of linear system to random inputs.

4. Network theory

Network analysis techniques; Network theorems, transient response, steady state sinusoidal response; Network graphs and their applications in network analysis; Tellegen’s theorem. Two port networks; Z, Y, h and transmission parameters. Combination of two ports, analysis of common two ports. Network functions : parts of network functions, obtaining a network function from a given part. Transmission criteria : delay and rise time, Elmore’s and other definitions effect of cascading. Elements of network synthesis.

5. Electromagnetic Theory

Analysis of electrostatic and magnetostatic fields; Laplace’s and Poisson’s equations; Boundary value problems and their solutions; Maxwell’s equations; application to wave propagation in bounded and unbounded media; Transmission lines : basic theory, standing waves, matching applications, microstrip lines; Basics of wave guides and resonators; Elements of antenna theory.

6. Electronic Measurements and instrumentation

Basic concepts, standards and error analysis; Measurements of basic electrical quantities and parameters; Electronic measuring instruments and their principles of working : analog and digital, comparison, characteristics, application. Transducers; Electronic measurements of non electrical quantities like temperature, pressure, humidity etc; basics of telemetry for industrial use.

ELECTRONICS & TELECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING PAPER - II

(For both objective and conventional type papers)

1. Analog Electronic Circuits :

Transistor biasing and stabilization. Small signal analysis. Power amplifiers. Frequency response. Wide banding techniques. Feedback amplifiers. Tuned amplifiers. Oscillators. Rectifiers and power supplies. Op Amp, PLL, other linear integrated circuits and applications. Pulse shaping circuits and waveform generators.

2. Digital Electronic Circuits :

Transistor as a switching element; Boolean algebra, simplification of Boolean functions, Karnaguh map and applications; IC Logic gates and their characteristics; IC logic families : DTL, TTL, ECL, NMOS, PMOS and CMOS gates and their comparison; Combinational logic Circuits; Half adder, Full adder; Digital comparator; Multiplexer Demulti-plexer; ROM an their applications. Flip flops. R-S, J-K, D and T flip-flops; Different types of counters and registers Waveform generators. A/D and D/A converters. Semiconductor memories.

3. Control Systems :

Transient and steady state response of control systems; Effect of feedback on stability and sensitivity; Root locus techniques; Frequency response analysis. Concepts of gain and phase margins: Constant-M and Constant-N Nichol’s Chart; Approximation of transient response from Constant-N Nichol’s Chart; Approximation of transient response from closed loop frequency response; Design of Control Systems, Compensators; Industrial controllers.

4. Communication Systems :

Basic information theory; Modulation and detection in analogue and digital systems; Sampling and data reconstructions; Quantization & coding; Time division and frequency division multiplexing; Equalization; Optical Communication : in free space & fiber optic; Propagation of signals at HF, VHF, UHF and microwave frequency; Satellite Communication.

5. Microwave Engineering :

Microwave Tubes and solid state devices, Microwave generation and amplifiers, Waveguides and other Microwave Components and Circuits, Microstrip circuits, Microwave Antennas, Microwave Measurements, Masers, lasers; Microwave propagation.

Microwave Communication Systems terrestrial and Satellite based.

6. Computer Engineering :

Number Systems. Data representation; Programming; Elements of a high level programming language PASCAL/C; Use of basic data structures; Fundamentals of computer architecture; Processor design; Control unit design; Memory organisation, I/o System Organisation. Microprocessors : Architecture and instruction set of Microprocessors 8085 and 8086, Assembly language Programming. Microprocessor Based system design : typical examples. Personal computers and their typical uses.

Part A: General English. The question paper in General English will be designed to test the candidate’s understanding of English and workmanlike use of words.

Part B: General Studies: The paper in General Studies will include knowledge of current events and of such matters as of everyday observation and experience in their scientific aspects as may be expected of an educated person. The paper will also include questions on History of India and Geography of a nature which candidates should be able to answer without special study.

CIVIL ENGINEERING PAPER-I

(For both objective and conventional type papers)

1. BUILDING MATERIALS

Timber : Different types and species of structural timber, density-moisture relationship, strength in different directions, defects, influence of defects on permissible stress, preservation, dry and wet rots, codal provisions for design, Plywood.

Bricks : Types, Indian Standard classification, absorption, saturation factor, strength in masonry, influence of morter strength on masonry strength.

Cement : Compounds of, different types, setting times, strength.

Cement Mortar : Ingredients, proportions, water demand, mortars for plastering and masonry.

Concrete : Importance of W/C Ratio, Strength, ingredients including admixtures, workability, testing for strength, elasticity, non-destructive testing, mix design methods.

2. SOLID MECHANICS

Elastic constants, stress, plane stress, Mohr’s circle of stress, strains, plane strain, Mohr’s circle of strain, combined stress; Elastic theories of failure; Simple bending, shear; Torsion of circular and rectangular sections and simple members.

3. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

Analysis of determinate structures - different methods including graphical methods.

Analysis of indeterminate skeletal frames - moment distribution, slope-deflection, stiffness and force methods, energy methods, Muller-Breslau principle and application.

Plastic analysis of indeterminate beams and simple frames - shape factors.

4. DESIGN OF STEEL STRUCTURES

Principles of working stress method. Design of connections, simple members, Built-up sections and frames, Design of Industrial roofs. Principles of ultimate load design. Design of simple members and frames.

5. DESIGN OF CONCRETE AND MASONRY STRUCTURES

Limit state design for bending, shear, axial compression and combined forces. Codal provisions for slabs, beams, walls and footings. Working stress method of design of R.C. members.

Principles of prestressed concrete design, materials, methods of prestressing, losses. Design of simple members and determinate structures. Introductions to prestressing of indeterminate structures.

Design of brick masonry as per I.S. Codes.

6. CONSTRUCTION PRACTICE, PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT

Concreting Equipment:

Weight Batcher, Mixer, vibrator, batching plant, concrete pump.

Cranes, hoists, lifting equipment.

Earthwork Equipment :

Power shovel, hoe, dozer, dumper, trailers and tractor, rollers, sheep foot rollers, pumps.

Construction, Planning and Management :

Bar chart, linked bar chart, work-break down structures, Activity - on - arrow diagrams. Critical path, probabilistic activity durations; Event-based networks.

PERT network: Time-cost study, crashing; Resource allocation.

CIVIL ENGINEERING PAPER-II

(For both objective and conventional type papers)

1. (a) FLUID MECHANICS, OPEN CHANNEL FLOW, PIPE FLOW:

Fluid Properties, Pressure, Thrust, Buoyancy; Flow Kinematics; Integration of flow equations; Flow measurement; Relative motion; Moment of momentum; Viscosity, Boundary layer and Control, Drag, Lift; dimensional Analysis, Modelling; Cavitation; Flow oscillations; Momentum and Energy principles in Open channel flow, Flow controls, Hydraulic jump, Flow sections and properties; Normal flow, Gradually varied flow; Surges; Flow development and losses in pipe flows, Measurements; Siphons; Surges and Water hammer; Delivery of Power Pipe networks.

(b) HYDRAULIC MACHINES AND HYDROPOWER:

Centrifugal pumps, types, performance parameters, scaling, pumps in parallel; Reciprocating pumps, air vessels, performance parameters; Hydraulic ram; Hydraulic turbines, types, performance parameters, controls, choice; Power house, classification and layout, storage, pondage, control of supply.

2. (a) HYDROLOGY :

Hydrological cycle, precipitation and related data analyses, PMP, unit and synthetic hydrographs; Evaporation and transpiration; Floods and their management, PMF; Streams and their gauging; River morphology; Routing of floods; Capacity of Reservoirs.

(b) WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING :

Water resources of the globe: Multipurpose uses of Water: Soil-Plant-Water relationships, irrigation systems, water demand assessment; Storages and their yields, ground water yield and well hydraulics; Waterlogging, drainage design; Irrigation revenue; Design of rigid boundary canals, Lacey’s and Tractive force concepts in canal design, lining of canals; Sediment transport in canals; Non-Overflow and overflow sections of gravity dams and their design, Energy dissipators and tailwater rating; Design of headworks, distribution works, falls, cross-drainage works, outlets; River training.

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

3. (a) WATER SUPPLY ENGINEERING :

Sources of supply, yields, design of intakes and conductors; Estimation of demand; Water quality standards; Control of Water-borne diseases; Primary and secondary treatment, detailing and maintenance of treatment units; Conveyance and distribution systems of treated water, leakages and control; Rural water supply; Institutional and industrial water supply.

(b) WASTE WATER ENGINEERING:

Urban rain water disposal; Systems of sewage collection and disposal; Design of sewers and sewerage systems; pumping; Characteristics of sewage and its treatment, Disposal of products of sewage treatment, streamflow rejuvenation Institutional and industrial sewage management; Plumbing Systems; Rural and semi-urban sanitation.

(c) SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

Sources, classification, collection and disposal; Design and Management of landfills.

(d) AIR AND NOISE POLLUTION AND ECOLOGY:

Sources and effects of air pollution, monitoring of air pollution; Noise pollution and standards; Ecological chain and balance, Environmental assessment.

4 (a) SOIL MECHANICS:

Properties of soils, classification and interrelationship; Compaction behaviour, methods of compaction and their choice; Permeability and seepage, flow nets, Inverted filters; Compressibility and consolidation; Shearing resistance, stresses and failure; soil testing in laboratory and in-situ; Stress path and applications; Earth pressure theories, stress distribution in soil; soil exploration, samplers, load tests, penetration tests.

(b) FOUNDATION ENGINEERING :

Types of foundations, Selection criteria, bearing capacity, settlement, laboratory and field tests; Types of piles and their design and layout, Foundations on expansive soils, swelling and its prevention, foundation on swelling soils.

5. (a) SURVEYING :

Classification of surveys, scales, accuracy; Measurement of distances - direct and indirect methods; optical and electronic devices; Measurement of directions, prismatic compass, local attraction; Theodolites - types; Measurement of elevations - Spirit and trigonometric levelling; Relief representation; Contours; Digital elevation modelling concept; Establishment of control by triangulations and traversing - measurements and adjustment of observations, computation of coordinates; Field astronomy, Concept of global positioning system; Map preparation by plane tabling and by photogrammetry; Remote sensing concepts, map substitutes.

(b) TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING :

Planning of highway systems, alignment and geometric design, horizontal and vertical curves, grade separation; Materials and construction methods for different surfaces and maintenance: Principles of pavement design; Drainage.

Traffic surveys, Intersections, signalling: Mass transit systems, accessibility, networking.

Tunnelling, alignment, methods of construction, disposal of muck, drainage, lighting and ventilation, traffic control, emergency management.

Planning of railway systems, terminology and designs, relating to gauge, track, controls, transits, rolling stock, tractive power and track modernisation; Maintenance; Appurtenant works; Containerisation.

Harbours - layouts, shipping lanes, anchoring, location identification; Littoral transport with erosion and deposition; sounding methods; Dry and Wet docks, components and operational Tidal data and analyses.

Airports - layout and orientation; Runway and taxiway design and drainage management; Zoning laws; Visual aids and air traffic control; Helipads, hangers, service equipment.

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING PAPER-I

(For both objective and conventional type papers)

1. Thermodynamics, Cycles and IC Engines, Basic concepts, Open and Closed systems. Heat and work. Zeroth, First and Second Law, Application to non-Flow and Flow processes. Entropy, Availability, Irreversibility and Tds relations. Claperyron and real gas equations, Properties of ideal gases and vapours. Standard vapour, Gas power and Refrigeration cycles. Two stage compressor. C-I and S.I. Engines. Pre-ignition, Detonation and Diesel-knock, Fuel injection and Carburation, Supercharging. Turbo-prop and Rocket engines, Engine Cooling, Emission & Control, Flue gas analysis, Measurement of Calorific values. Conventional and Nuclear fuels, Elements of Nuclear power production.

2. Heat Transfer and Refrigeration and Airconditioning. Modes of heat transfer. One dimensional steady and unsteady conduction. Composite slab and Equivalent Resistance. Heat dissipation from extended surfaces, Heat exchangers, Overall heat transfer coefficient, Empirical correlations for heat transfer in laminar and turbulent flows and for free and forced Convection, Thermal boundary layer over a flat plate. Fundamentals of diffusive and connective mass transfer, Black body and basic concepts in Radiation, Enclosure theory, Shape factor, Net work analysis. Heat pump and Refrigeration cycles and systems, Refrigerants. Condensers, Evaporates and Expansion devices, Psychrometry, Charts and application to air conditioning, Sensible heating and cooling, Effective temperature, comfort indices, Load calculations, Solar refrigeration, controls, Duct design.

3. Fluid Mechanics.

Properties and classification of fluids, Manometry, forces on immersed surfaces, Center of pressure, Buoyancy, Elements of stability of floating bodies. Kinematics and Dynamics.

Irrotational and incompressible. Inviscid flow. Velocity potential, Pressure field and Forces on immersed bodies. Bernoulli’s equation, Fully developed flow through pipes, Pressure drop calculations, Measurement of flow rate and Pressure drop. Elements of boundary layer theory, Integral approach, Laminar and tubulent flows, Separations. Flow over weirs and notches. Open channel flow, Hydraulic jump. Dimensionless numbers, Dimensional analysis, Similitude and modelling. One-dimensional isentropic flow, Normal shock wave, Flow through convergent - divergent ducts, Oblique shock-wave, Rayleigh and Fanno lines.

4. Fluid Machinery and Steam Generators.

Performance, Operation and control of hydraulic Pump and impulse and reaction Turbines, Specific speed, Classification. Energy transfer, Coupling, Power transmission, Steam generators Fire-tube and water-tube boilers. Flow of steam through Nozzles and Diffusers, Wetness and condensation. Various types of steam and gas Turbines, Velocity diagrams. Partial admission. Reciprocating, Centrifugal and axial flow Compressors, Multistage compression, role of Mach Number, Reheat, Regeneration, Efficiency, Governance.

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING PAPER - II

(For both objective and conventional type papers)

5. THEORY OF MACHINES:

Kinematic and dynamic analysis of planer mechanisms. Cams. Gears and gear trains. Flywheels. Governors. Balancing of rigid rotors and field balancing. Balancing of single and multicylinder engines, Linear vibration analysis of mechanical systems. Critical speeds and whirling of shafts Automatic controls.

6. MACHINE DESIGN :

Design of Joints : cotters, keys, splines, welded joints, threaded fasteners, joints formed by interference fits. Design of friction drives : couplings and clutches, belt and chain drives, power screws.

Design of Power transmission systems : gears and gear drives shaft and axle, wire ropes.

Design of bearings : hydrodynamics bearings and rolling element bearings.

7. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS

Stress and strain in two dimensions, Principal stresses and strains, Mohr’s construction, linear elastic materials, isotropy and anisotropy, stress-strain relations, uniaxial loading, thermal stresses. Beams : Bending moment and shear force diagram, bending stresses and deflection of beams. Shear stress distribution. Torsion of shafts, helical springs. Combined stresses, thick-and thin-walled pressure vessels. Struts and columns. Strain energy concepts and theories of failure.

8. ENGINEERING MATERIALS :

Basic concepts on structure of solids. Crystalline maferials. Detects in crystalline materials. Alloys and binary phase diagrams. Structure and properties of common engineering materials. Heat treatment of steels. Plastics, Ceramics and composite materials. Common applications of various materials.

9. PRODUCTION ENGINEERING :

Metal Forming : Basic Principles of forging, drawing and extrusion; High energy rate forming; Powder metallurgy.

Metal Casting : Die casting, investment casting, Shall Moulding, Centrifugal Casting, Gating & Riser design; melting furnaces.

Fabrication Processes : Principles of Gas, Arc, Shielded arc Welding; Advanced Welding Processes, Weldability: Metallurgy of Welding.

Metal Cutting : Turning, Methods of Screw Production, Drilling, Boring, Milling, Gear Manufacturing, Production of flat surfaces, Grinding & Finishing Processes. Computer Controlled Manufacturing Systems-CNC, DNC, FMS, Automation and Robotics.

Cutting Tools Materials, Tool Geometry, Mechanism of Tool Wear, Tool Life & Machinability; Measurement of cutting forces. Economics of Machining. Unconventional Machining Processes. Jigs and Fixtures. Fits and tolerances, Measurement of surface texture, Comparators Alignment tests and reconditioning of Machine Tools.

10. INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING :

Production Planning and Control : Forecasting - Moving average, exponential smoothing, Operations, scheduling; assembly line balancing, Product development, Break-even analysis, Capacity planning, PERT and CPM.

Control Operations : Inventory control ABC analysis, EOQ model, Materials requirement planning. Job design, Job standards, Work measurement, Quality Management - Quality analysis and control. Operations Research : Linear Programming - Graphical and Simplex methods, Transportation and assignment models. Single server queueing model.

Value Engineering : Value analysis for cost/value.

11. ELEMENTS OF COMPUTATION :

Computer Organisation, Flow charting, Features of Common computer Languages - FORTRAN, d Base III, Lotus 1-2-3, C and elementary Programming.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAPER - I

(For both objective and conventional types papers)

1. EM Theory

Electric and magnetic fields. Gauss’s Law and Amperes Law. Fields in dielectrics, conductors and magnetic materials. Maxwell’s equations. Time varying fields. Plane-Wave propagating in dielectric and conducting media. Transmission lines.

2. Electrical Materials

Band Theory, Conductors, Semi-conductors and Insulators. Super-conductivity. Insulators for electrical and electronic applications. Magnetic materials. Ferro and ferri magnetism. Ceramics, Properties and applications. Hall effect and its applications. Special semi conductors.

3. Electrical Circuits

Circuits elements. Kirchoff’s Laws. Mesh and nodal analysis. Network Theorems and applications. Natural response and forced response. Transient response and steady state response for arbitrary inputs. Properties of networks in terms of poles and zeros. Transfer function. Resonant circuits. Threephase circuits. Two-port networks. Elements of two-element network synthesis.

4. Measurements and Instrumentation

Units and Standards. Error analysis, measurement of current, Voltage, power, Power-factor and energy. Indicating instruments. Measurement of resistance, inductance, Capacitance and frequency. Bridge measurements. Electronic measuring instruments. Digital Voltmeter and frequency counter. Transducers and their applications to the measurement of non-electrical quantities like temperature, pressure, flow-rate displacement, acceleration, noise level etc. Data acquisition systems. A/D and D/A converters.

5. CONTROL SYSTEMS.

Mathematical modelling of physical systems. Block diagrams and signal flow graphs and their reduction. Time domain and frequency domain analysis of linear dynamical system. Errors for different type of inputs and stability criteria for feedback systems. Stability analysis using Routh-Hurwitz array, Nyquist plot and Bode plot. Root locus and Nicols chart and the estimation of gain and phase margin. Basic concepts of compensator design. State variable matrix and its use in system modelling and design. Sampled data system and performance of such a system with the samples in the error channel. Stability of sampled data system. Elements of non-linear control analysis. Control system components, electromechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic components.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAPER - II

(For both objective and conventional types papers)

1. Electrical Machines and Power Transformers

Magnetic Circuits - Analysis and Design of Power transformers. Construction and testing. Equivalent circuits. Losses and efficiency. Regulation. Auto-transformer, 3-phase transformer. Parallel operation.

Basic concepts in rotating machines. EMF, torque, basic machine types. Construction and operation, leakage losses and efficiency.

B.C. Machines. Construction, Excitation methods. Circuit models. Armature reaction and commutation. Characteristics and performance analysis. Generators and motors. Starting and speed control. Testing, Losses and efficiency.

Synchronous Machines. Construction. Circuit model. Operating characteristics and performance analysis. Synchronous reactance. Efficiency. Voltage regulation. Salient-pole machine, Parallel operation. Hunting. Short circuit transients.

Induction Machines. Construction. Principle of operation. Rotating fields. Characteristics and performance analysis. Determination of circuit model. Circle diagram. Starting and speed control.

Fractional KW motors. Single-phase synchronous and induction motors.

2. Power systems

Types of Power Stations, Hydro, Thermal and Nuclear Stations. Pumped storage plants. Economics and operating factors.

Power transmission lines. Modeling and performance characteristics. Voltage control. Load flow studies. Optimal power system operation. Load frequency control. Symmetrical short circuit analysis. ZBus formulation. Symmetrical Components. Per Unit representation. Fault analysis. Transient and steady-state stability of power systems. Equal area criterion.

Power system Transients. Power system Protection Circuit breakers. Relays. HVDC transmission.

3. ANALOG AND DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND CIRCUITS

Semiconductor device physics, PN junctions and transistors, circuit models and parameters, FET, Zener, tunnel, Schottky, photo diodes and their applications, rectifier circuits, voltage regulators and multipliers, switching behavior of diodes and transistors.

Small signal amplifiers, biasing circuits, frequency response and improvement, multistage amplifiers and feed-back amplifiers, D.C. amplifiers, Oscillators. Large signal amplifiers, coupling methods, push pull amplifiers, operational amplifiers, wave shaping circuits. Multivibrators and flip-flops and their applications. Digital logic gate families, universal gates-combination circuits for arithmetic and logic operational, sequential logic circuits. Counters, registers, RAM and ROMs.

4. MICROPROCESSORS

Microprocessor architecture-Instruction set and simple assembly language programming. Interfacing for memory and I/O. Applications of Micro-processors in power system.

5. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

Types of modulation; AM, FM and PM. Demodulators. Noise and bandwidth considerations. Digital communication systems. Pulse code modulation and demodulation. Elements of sound and vision broadcasting. Carrier communication. Frequency division and time division multiplexing, Telemetry system in power engineering.

6. POWER ELECTRONICS

Power Semiconductor devices. Thyristor. Power transistor, GTOs and MOSFETS. Characteristics and operation. AC to DC Converters; 1-phase and 3-phase DC to DC Converters; AC regulators. Thyristor controlled reactors; switched capacitor networks.

Inverters; single-phase and 3-phase. Pulse width modulation. Sinusoidal modulation with uniform sampling. Switched mode power supplies.

ELECTRONICS & TELECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING PAPER - I

(For both objective and conventional type papers)

1. Materials and Components :

Structure and properties of Electrical Engineering materials; Conductors, Semiconductors and Insulators, magnetic, Ferroelectric, Piezoelectric, Ceramic, Optical and Super-conducting materials. Passive components and characteristics Resistors, Capacitors and Inductors; Ferrites, Quartz crystal Ceramic resonators, Electromagnetic and Electromechanical components.

2. Physical Electronics, Electron Devices and ICs:

Electrons and holes in semiconductors, Carrier Statistics, Mechanism of current flow in a semiconductor, Hall effect; Junction theory; Different types of diodes and their characteristics; Bipolar Junction transistor; Field effect transistors; Power switching devices like SCRs, GTOs, power MOSFETS; Basics of ICs - bipolar, MOS and CMOS types; basic of Opto Electronics.

3. Signals and Systems

Classification of signals and systems: System modelling in terms of differential and difference equations; State variable representation; Fourier series; Fourier transforms and their application to system analysis; Laplace transforms and their application to system analysis; Convolution and superposition integrals and their applications; Z-transforms and their applications to the analysis and characterisation of discrete time systems; Random signals and probability, Correlation functions; Spectral density; Response of linear system to random inputs.

4. Network theory

Network analysis techniques; Network theorems, transient response, steady state sinusoidal response; Network graphs and their applications in network analysis; Tellegen’s theorem. Two port networks; Z, Y, h and transmission parameters. Combination of two ports, analysis of common two ports. Network functions : parts of network functions, obtaining a network function from a given part. Transmission criteria : delay and rise time, Elmore’s and other definitions effect of cascading. Elements of network synthesis.

5. Electromagnetic Theory

Analysis of electrostatic and magnetostatic fields; Laplace’s and Poisson’s equations; Boundary value problems and their solutions; Maxwell’s equations; application to wave propagation in bounded and unbounded media; Transmission lines : basic theory, standing waves, matching applications, microstrip lines; Basics of wave guides and resonators; Elements of antenna theory.

6. Electronic Measurements and instrumentation

Basic concepts, standards and error analysis; Measurements of basic electrical quantities and parameters; Electronic measuring instruments and their principles of working : analog and digital, comparison, characteristics, application. Transducers; Electronic measurements of non electrical quantities like temperature, pressure, humidity etc; basics of telemetry for industrial use.

ELECTRONICS & TELECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING PAPER - II

(For both objective and conventional type papers)

1. Analog Electronic Circuits :

Transistor biasing and stabilization. Small signal analysis. Power amplifiers. Frequency response. Wide banding techniques. Feedback amplifiers. Tuned amplifiers. Oscillators. Rectifiers and power supplies. Op Amp, PLL, other linear integrated circuits and applications. Pulse shaping circuits and waveform generators.

2. Digital Electronic Circuits :

Transistor as a switching element; Boolean algebra, simplification of Boolean functions, Karnaguh map and applications; IC Logic gates and their characteristics; IC logic families : DTL, TTL, ECL, NMOS, PMOS and CMOS gates and their comparison; Combinational logic Circuits; Half adder, Full adder; Digital comparator; Multiplexer Demulti-plexer; ROM an their applications. Flip flops. R-S, J-K, D and T flip-flops; Different types of counters and registers Waveform generators. A/D and D/A converters. Semiconductor memories.

3. Control Systems :

Transient and steady state response of control systems; Effect of feedback on stability and sensitivity; Root locus techniques; Frequency response analysis. Concepts of gain and phase margins: Constant-M and Constant-N Nichol’s Chart; Approximation of transient response from Constant-N Nichol’s Chart; Approximation of transient response from closed loop frequency response; Design of Control Systems, Compensators; Industrial controllers.

4. Communication Systems :

Basic information theory; Modulation and detection in analogue and digital systems; Sampling and data reconstructions; Quantization & coding; Time division and frequency division multiplexing; Equalization; Optical Communication : in free space & fiber optic; Propagation of signals at HF, VHF, UHF and microwave frequency; Satellite Communication.

5. Microwave Engineering :

Microwave Tubes and solid state devices, Microwave generation and amplifiers, Waveguides and other Microwave Components and Circuits, Microstrip circuits, Microwave Antennas, Microwave Measurements, Masers, lasers; Microwave propagation.

Microwave Communication Systems terrestrial and Satellite based.

6. Computer Engineering :

Number Systems. Data representation; Programming; Elements of a high level programming language PASCAL/C; Use of basic data structures; Fundamentals of computer architecture; Processor design; Control unit design; Memory organisation, I/o System Organisation. Microprocessors : Architecture and instruction set of Microprocessors 8085 and 8086, Assembly language Programming. Microprocessor Based system design : typical examples. Personal computers and their typical uses.

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